Aristotle - Wikipedia
Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, . In BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander. Near the end of his life, Alexander and Aristotle became estranged over Alexander's relationship with Persia and Persians. Rather, it was man himself who, thanks to his own brainpower, could Love & relationships . cultures as possible the chance to exert the power of human brains over nature's brawn. As luck would have it, Aristotle's pupil, the young Prince Alexander of Macedon, was just the right man at just the right time. Whatever the relationship between Alexander and Aristotle was, it was unlikely one based upon their shared views about politics and the.
Oxford University Press | Online Resource Centre | Aristotle ( BC)
Aristotelian Political Philosophy Volume 1Athens: International Center for Greek Philosophy and Culture,pp. Critical Essays, Lanham MD: Reprinted in David Keyt, Nature and Justice: Rowe and Malcolm Schofield eds. SUNY Press,pp. Pennsylvania State University Press, Reason or Rationalization, Chicago: Hintikka eds Discovering Reality: Political Economy Ambler, Wayne H. A Companion to Aristotle's Politics, Oxford: Foundational Thinkers and Business Ethics, Chicago: Oxford University Press, pp.
Cambridge University Press,— In David Keyt, Nature and Justice: Fondation Hardt,pp. Brooks and James Bernard Murphy eds. Essays Presented to G. Akademie Verlag,pp. University of California Press,pp. Vander Waert, Paul A. Education Burnyeat, Myles F.
Cornell University Press, Law Brooks, Richard O.
Hamburger, Max, Morals and Law: He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image. Accident philosophy According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity.
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things"from what is spontaneous". There is also more a specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names "luck", that only applies to people's moral choices.
History of astronomy In astronomyAristotle refuted Democritus 's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays," pointing out correctly that if "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then History of geology Aristotle was one of the first people to record any geological observations. He stated that geological change was too slow to be observed in one person's lifetime.Plato and Aristotle: Crash Course History of Science #3
Empirical research Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically,  and biology forms a large part of his writings. He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos.
He describes the catfishelectric rayand frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus. His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes.
He was thus critical of Empedocles's materialist theory of a "survival of the fittest" origin of living things and their organs, and ridiculed the idea that accidents could lead to orderly results. He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: Aristotle did not do experiments in the modern sense. It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed.
These were good or bad depending upon whether or not they were operated to the advantage of the people as a whole.
Monarchy and aristocracy were 'good' forms of constitution in which the government was in the hands of a single person or a few. Their defective counterparts were tyranny and oligarchy.
Where power was exercised by the people as a whole, the good and bad governments are 'polity', where there is little or no class discrimination, and democracy, which Aristotle regarded as the rule of the poor in their own selfish interests see page 73, Chapter 1.
Whatever the form of constitution, Aristotle believed that 'politics' of some sort comes naturally to human beings.
Alexander and Aristotle
His famous remark, 'Man is a political animal', actually means that people naturally associate in the polis, or city, rather than living in isolation from each other see pageChapter However, this still means that Aristotle thought that politics, in the modern sense, was natural for humans: For Aristotle, a kind of 'politics' is inherent in the individual household, in which women should be ruled by their husbands. This, according to Aristotle, is entirely for their own benefit.
Aristotle's view of the institution of slavery is even more uncongenial to today's liberal democracies.