Philosophy vs. Psychology » IAI TV
Nevertheless, the relationship between philosophy and psychology often remains elusive even for the students in the liberal arts, and they are. Discusses the relationship between psychology, philosophy and education. Psychology was once a part of philosophy, but separated from it due to its reliance. Philosophy and psychology have many differences, but also share many similarities. Each is very interesting to explore, and in this article we.
A Critical Analysis Tool One relatively easy pedagogical tool that I have used in the classroom to help students learn, understand, and apply causal assumptions to psychological theory is a group discussion exercise.
Students are broken into groups depending upon the size of the class and are given a worksheet with short quotations from various psychological sources. I usually use both contemporary research sources e. Skinner, Freud, Albert Ellis. Students are instructed to identify the underlying Aristotelian causal philosophical assumption that is tacitly presumed in the quotation.
At the risk of being redundant, I will briefly define each of the four causes here and provide a few examples of the kinds of quotations that I would include on a discussion sheet. The efficient cause refers to the linear antecedent-to-consequent motion over time view of causality to which many of us are already tacitly familiar; the material cause refers to the material or substance of which something consists; the formal cause refers to the form, blueprint, or overarching organization whole or gestalt that inheres in something; and the final cause refers to the end or purpose that is associated with something.
For these definitions to be meaningful to students, each definition will likely require previous discussion that centers on application. For example, what does the material cause really mean as it is applied to the behavioral sciences? The point is that students will need to understand the link between the abstract philosophical definition of causality and the application for the exercise to be meaningful.
Once the students are presented with the information about philosophical causal assumptions, the group activity follows. The discussion sheet might include the following directions: Below are quotes that make assumptions about causality. Some sample quotations include the following: If we look at the matter more closely, we shall find the following law holding in the development of all psychic happenings: The practice and theory of individual psychology.
During the last two decades of the twentieth century, both psychiatrists and their patients have steadily recognized that mental illnesses are diseases of the brain…We will understand how the cells in our brains go bad when their molecules go bad, and we will understand how this is expressed at the level of systems such as attention and memory so that human beings develop diseases such as schizophrenia and depression.
Conquering mental illness in the era of the genome. Personality is shaped by temperament and cognitive schemas. Schemas develop early in life from personal experience and identification with significant others. These concepts are reinforced by further learning experiences and, in turn, influence the formation of beliefs, values, and attitudes.
Current psychotherapies 7th ed. Critical Analysis in Action Once the students can identify the predominant causal assumption embedded in the psychological explanation or theory as exemplified in the quotations abovethe instructor can lead fruitful discussions regarding the implications that logically follow from the philosophical assumptions themselves. This is part and parcel of the critical thinking process.
For example, material explanations of human behavior e. How do we understand the rising prominence of material causal assumptions in psychological explanations? What is the role of alternative forms of causal assumptions in psychological explanations?
In addition, students can apply such critical thinking skills to their own personal philosophies. Such critical analysis offers students the opportunity to examine how their own personal philosophies make similar or dissimilar assumptions as compared to other scholars e.
Philosophy of psychology - Wikipedia
People can be educated in terms of cultural possibilities developed by societies over long periods of time: Such education has important links to issues concerning freedom, conceived of, for example, in terms of liberation from uncritically received ideas.
But people are not independent objects. In a classic example of the mind-set for which only independent perceivable objects are real, the whole history of conceptions of beauty, and the development of cultures of evaluation, is thereby consigned to the dustbin.
So how does what I am saying here help us respond to questions about the nature of beauty? One obvious point is that without subjects who can feel pleasure and displeasure the notion of beauty makes little sense, but nor does it without objects that can elicit such pleasure.
Which objects elicit in which people the kind of response suggested by Kant is in many respects a historical, social, and political issue, which obviously involves psychology, but not the kind of psychology which seeks to do experiments that exclude cultural contexts. As I suggested above, Kant realises that the issue of beauty is a good place to pose questions about how we conceive of the relationship between the subjective and the objective, and this philosophical question clearly cannot be ignored in psychological research.
There is a further issue here: The fact is that the development of art in modernity is probably not best characterised in terms of the notion of beauty anyway. One alternative here is to see art in terms of the kind of sense it makes of the world, only one mode of which is enabling things to appear beautiful.
Philosophy of psychology
Art in the modern period is often driven by the demand for novelty, because if it does not bring about new sense it can become merely a reflection of a questionable status quo. However, although both bodies of knowledge examine people and life, the aspects each discipline focuses on, is considerably different. That is, while philosophy attempts to understand the existence of human life, psychology attempts to understand human behaviour.
Apart from the topics that each area covers, philosophy and psychology also differ in terms of the methods they use to answer questions. Philosophy looks into areas such as life after death through questions and answers, and will never produce a single, correct answer. Contrastingly, psychology uses scientific method to understand human behaviour. This involves hypothesis testing that result in logical conclusions, supported by both observations and physical data.
Furthermore, philosophy and psychology differ in employment opportunities.