the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention. First, for early- career factor that affects turnover intention (Vermeeren, Kuipers,. & Steijn, factors, at present there is not a unified view concerning the relationship. To manage these effects, job satisfaction and turnover relationships have been .. Therefore, if employee turnover is not managed properly, it would affect the. satisfaction and turn- over of (the 95% confidence interval did not include 0 ). satisfaction-turnover relationship was hypothesized by Weitz. (). . rather than the disposition toward affect (Diener, , ; Judge,. ). Weitz's.
Intrinsic factors are those internally derived and include personal achievement, sense of accomplishment, and prestige.
Extrinsic factors are those derived from factors in the practice environment and include pay and benefits, working conditions, and resources [ 1 ]. To study job satisfaction many theorists have been identified. Locke's range of affect theory [ 9 ] is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model.
The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work e. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively when expectations are met and negatively when expectations are not metcompared to one who does not value that facet [ 7 ].
Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the dispositional theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one's job.
This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction [ 7 ]. Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory a. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors—motivation and hygiene factors, respectively.
An employee's motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organization goals. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example, achievement in work, recognition, and promotion opportunities [ 7 ].
Hackman and Oldham proposed the job characteristics model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback which impact three critical psychological states experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual resultsin turn influencing work outcomes job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.
Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be.
Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. The most common way of measurement of job satisfaction is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs.
Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities in the work itself, and coworkers [ 7 ]. Statement of the Problem All nursing associations and unions report a deteriorating quality of work-life for nurses.
Quality of work-life is widely believed to be one of the most important factors in recruitment and retention, thus having an impact on the current and the future supply of nurses. To deal with the problem, the range of issues includes appropriate workload; professional leadership and clinical support, adequate continuous professional education, career mobility and career ladders, flexibility scheduling and deployment, professional respect, protection against injuries and diseases related to the work place, and good wages [ 10 ].
Peru stated that a major challenge for national, regional, and local governments is the implementation of strategies to reduce maternal mortality and chronic child malnutrition so as to create conditions for sustainable development.
This means confronting common problems in the management and development of human resources, including limited development of health personnel competencies, health personnel in remote areas who lack access to training opportunities, poor coordination with training institutions whose training does not meet regional needs, training programs carried out in settings different from the actual work context, no performance evaluation based on competencies, and high turnover rates for trained staff [ 11 ].
Job satisfaction's consequence can be discussed from different points of views; Maslow [ 12 ] suggests that employees will always tend to want more from their employers. When they have satisfied their subsistence needs, they strive to fulfill security needs.
When jobs are secure they will seek ways of satisfying social needs and if successful will seek the means to the ultimate end of self-actualization. The most important correlate of work satisfaction is retention. Employees who are satisfied with their work tend to remain in their jobs [ 5 ]. Intuitively, it is easy to link patient safety and patient satisfaction to employee satisfaction.
A happy employee is focused on their professional tasks, without being distracted by a negative environment, which leads to better performance.
Statistically valid research is turning this intuition into fact. For example, the Georgia Quality Initiative, which began inhas identified that long term care LTC facilities with happy employees have fewer patient falls, and fewer residents with acquired pressure ulcers and acquired catheters. There is also statistically valid evidence that shows a strong relationship between patient satisfaction and employee satisfaction [ 13 ].
Nurses who were not satisfied at work were also found to distance themselves from their patients and their nursing chores, resulting in suboptimal quality of care.
Dissatisfaction with work can cause poor job performance, lower productivity, and staff turnover and is costly to organizations. The relationship between job satisfaction and performance was found to be even higher for complex e.
In addition, most importantly there is growing evidence of the association between health care workers' job satisfaction and the outcome of health care. Stress and illness contribute to poor clinical judgment, risking harm to patients; stressed workers are vulnerable to injury and have a higher absenteeism rate [ 14 ].
Although some turnover can revitalize an organization, a high voluntary turnover rate can have negative consequences. These include costs associated with recruitment and orientation of new nurses, loss of experienced nurses, periods of short staffing accompanied by overtime for remaining RNs, or use of temporary agency staff who are less familiar with the setting than employees, and potential for increase in adverse patient outcomes [ 15 ].
Career opportunities and training afford individuals the prospect of further developing themselves and growing within the ranks of their career. They also acknowledge experience and time dedicated to nursing, which provides much-needed recognition in the field of nursing.
Low wages, lack of resources to work effectively, limited career opportunities, and limited educational opportunities are other important factors. Because of insufficient staffing levels nurses become frustrated with their inability to complete their work to their professional satisfaction, and they experience difficulties in meeting patient's needs [ 4 ].
The focus throughout this is providing guidance to employees and creating awareness of career growth possibilities within the organization.
For many individuals, continuing to enhance their capabilities and knowing that there are growth opportunities in the organization may lead to greater job satisfaction and longer employment with that organization [ 16 ]. The relationships of nurses with physicians may be very positive, but it also results in some of the most stressful encounters for nurses.
When these relationships lack respect and trust, the result is a difficult working environment and potential for ineffective patient care.
Interpersonal relationships always are the result of actions by both parties, and both are responsible for their success [ 17 ]. According to Herzberg two-factor theory of job satisfaction, people are made dissatisfied by a bad environment, but they are seldom made satisfied by a good environment.
The prevention of dissatisfaction is just as important as encouragement of motivator satisfaction [ 18 ]. Investigating possible changes over time in sources of dissatisfaction revealed that factors related to the work environment rather than individual or demographic factors were still of most importance to nurses' turnover intentions. The differences found to occur across work settings necessitates analysis of job satisfaction at ward level, and the contribution of qualitative methods to develop more insight that is detailed is emphasized.
Predictors of registered nurse RN turnover have included intent to leave, nurse job dissatisfaction, salary, fewer years on the job, not enough time to do the job well, and demographic characteristics male, unmarried, nonwhite, and no children living at home are more likely to leave [ 15 ]. According to Rambur et al. In addition to improved patient satisfaction, other benefits of measuring and improving employee satisfaction include reduced turnover, associated reductions in training costs, identifying cost-saving opportunities, curbing absenteeism, strengthening supervision, evaluating patient-service issues, assessing training needs, streamlining communication, benchmarking the facility's progress in relation to the industry, and gauging employee's understanding of, and agreement with, the facility's mission [ 1 ].
Today's global nursing shortage is having an adverse impact on health systems around the world. A major initiative by the International Council of Nurses ICN yielded important information regarding the shortage and solutions to it. These are organized into five priority areas: International momentum is building, providing the opportunity to bring attention to these issues and to take action [ 20 ].
The rapid expansion of training and health service institutions creates a major gap in terms of human resource for health HRH as trainers, service providers, and managers. There have been a lot of efforts by the government to bridge this gap.
Moreover, the health policy of Ethiopia emphasizes training of community based task-oriented frontline and midlevel health workers.
As a mechanism to retain health workers, the policy supports developing an attractive career structure; remuneration and incentives for all categories of workers within their respective systems of employment have been considered [ 21 ]. The WHO estimates indicate that Ethiopia has one of the lowest health workers per population ratio of the 57 crisis countries with one health worker for every 4, people, and the highest estimated shortage ofhealth workers needed to reach the target 2.
To deal with this the G8 endorsement of the Agenda for Global Action AGA has been mapped six recommendations against the problem based on study done on four Sub-Saharan countries. From that, AGA 3 and 4 are about scaling up health worker education and training, retaining an effective, responsive, and equitably distributed health workforce [ 22 ].
Literature Review The nurse workforce in Sub-Saharan Africa SSA is a significant component of its health workforce, perhaps more than on other continents. Nurses constitute 45—60 percent of the entire health workforce with nurses responsible for a broad range of services. Generally, the nurse to physician ratio is much higher in SSA than on other continents which is between While the ratio of nurses to doctors may be high, the ratio of nurses to population in SSA tends to be much lower than in most other regions of the world [ 23 ].
In the study done specifically in north central West Virginia, job satisfaction significantly correlated with context, structure, and attitudes variables even though age was not correlated with job satisfaction [ 1 ]. In a study conducted in Kuwait to assess nurse job satisfaction they found significant relationship of job satisfaction with marital status with positive.
However, a higher level of education qualification showed an invasive relationship with job satisfaction [ 24 ] which is also supported by Larrabee et al. But other nurse researchers indicated younger nurses with less work experience, lower professional titles, and lower working positions experienced lower levels of emotional exhaustion which is positively related to job satisfaction and negatively to intention to turnover [ 25 ].
Again this idea contradicts Cameron et al. Age of worker was also considered as one influencing factor of job satisfaction and turnover. In a study done in china, for 20—year-old nurses, work satisfaction and job stress were significant predictors of anticipated turnover.
For the 31—year-old nurses, work satisfaction was predictive of anticipated turnover. For the 41—year-old nurses, work satisfaction and group cohesion was predictive of anticipated turnover. For the nurse who is 51 or older, there were no significant predictors of turnover [ 125 ]. Nurses with less than 1 year experience and between 10 and The reduced form specification was similar to the instrumental variable model results [ 29 ]. Nursing is one of numerous professions in which one sex comprises the clear majority of workers while gender difference reported as factor for job satisfaction and nurse turnover.
Job embeddedness is the degree to which an employee feels unable or unwilling to leave his or her job. In other words, job searchers who have fostered ties with their organization, consider themselves to fit in well with their job and organizational culture, and consider the cost of leaving to be great, are less likely to actually accept a suitable alternative.
A third factor that affects job searchers is the availability of suitable alternative positions.Employees first, customers second - Vineet Nayar - TEDxAix
In general, the probability of turnover increases when a job searcher has multiple alternatives to choose from. With that in mind, the employees who are highly marketable, or who have a large number of potential alternatives, are at the greatest risk for turnover.
Practical Implications It is important for employers and HR managers to foster positive work attitudes and embeddedness in order to retain employees.
Workplace initiatives, such as job enrichment and providing a supportive work climate, are proven tactics for increasing job satisfaction. Job embeddedness can be promoted within the organization e.
HR managers may also want to target retention efforts for the high risk individuals, or those who are less satisfied, not embedded in their jobs, and have other alternatives available.
To do so, organizations may benefit from assessing employee work attitudes, employee links to the organization and community, and occupation-level labor trends. Kelly Whalen DeGarmo This was a summary of the research and practice implications from: Examining the job search—turnover relationship: The role of embeddedness, job satisfaction, and available alternatives.