The Storage Battery of Life
Respiration Equation. Photosynthesis Equation. Chloroplasts. Chlorophyll. Mitochondria. Autotroph. Heterotroph. Stomata. You will work with a partner to draw a diagram that expresses the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Your diagram will be graded on . Respiration Poster On the provided poster-board, work with a partner to draw a diagram that expresses the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular.
Leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and isoleucine can be converted into acetyl CoA. Isoleucine, valine, methionine, and threonine can be converted into succinyl CoA. Tyrosine and phenylalanine can be converted into fumarate, and aspartate and asparagine can be converted into oxaloacetate.
Glutamate amino acid and alpha-ketoglutarate citric acid cycle intermediate have similar structures. The only difference is that glutamate has an amino group where alpha-ketoglutarate has a carbonyl group.
How lipids enter the pathway Fats, known more formally as triglycerides, can be broken down into two components that enter the cellular respiration pathways at different stages. A triglyceride is made up of a three-carbon molecule called glycerol, and of three fatty acid tails attached to the glycerol. Glycerol can be converted to glyceraldehydephosphate, an intermediate of glycolysis, and continue through the remainder of the cellular respiration breakdown pathway. Fatty acids, on the other hand, must be broken down in a process called beta-oxidation, which takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria.
In beta-oxidation, the fatty acid tails are broken down into a series of two-carbon units that combine with coenzyme A, forming acetyl CoA. This acetyl CoA feeds smoothly into the citric acid cycle. It's a two-way street We've thought a lot about how molecules can enter cellular respiration, but it's also important to consider how they can exit.
Molecules in the cellular respiration pathway can be pulled out at many stages and used to build other molecules, including amino acids, nucleotides, lipids, and carbohydrates. To give just one example, acetyl CoA mentioned above that's produced in cellular respiration can be diverted from the citric acid cycle and used to build the lipid cholesterol.
Cholesterol forms the backbone of the steroid hormones in our bodies, such as testosterone and estrogens. Whether it's better to "burn" molecules for fuel via cellular respiration or use them to build other molecules depends on the needs of the cell—and so does which specific molecules they're used to build!
Four molecules of ATP per glucose are actually produced, however, two are consumed as part of the preparatory phase. The initial phosphorylation of glucose is required to increase the reactivity decrease its stability in order for the molecule to be cleaved into two pyruvate molecules by the enzyme aldolase.
During the pay-off phase of glycolysis, four phosphate groups are transferred to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation to make four ATP, and two NADH are produced when the pyruvate are oxidized. The overall reaction can be expressed this way: Glycogen can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate as well with the help of glycogen phosphorylase. During energy metabolism, glucose 6-phosphate becomes fructose 6-phosphate.
An additional ATP is used to phosphorylate fructose 6-phosphate into fructose 1,6-disphosphate by the help of phosphofructokinase.
Fructose 1,6-diphosphate then splits into two phosphorylated molecules with three carbon chains which later degrades into pyruvate. Glycolysis can be literally translated as "sugar splitting".
Connections between cellular respiration and other pathways
The PDC contains multiple copies of three enzymes and is located in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes. Citric acid cycle Main article: Citric acid cycle This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When oxygen is present, acetyl-CoA is produced from the pyruvate molecules created from glycolysis. Once acetyl-CoA is formed, aerobic or anaerobic respiration can occur.
However, if oxygen is not present, fermentation of the pyruvate molecule will occur.
Cellular respiration - Wikipedia
To fully oxidize the equivalent of one glucose molecule, two acetyl-CoA must be metabolized by the Krebs cycle. Two waste productsH2O and CO2, are created during this cycle. The citric acid cycle is an 8-step process involving 18 different enzymes and co-enzymes. Oxidative phosphorylation Main articles: