Keywords: Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, structural equation . psychological perspective of its relationship with leadership style, the notion of job. Key words: Transformational leadership Followers Leadership styles Job satisfaction Relationship . leadership concept and determining its relationship with. Transformational leadership style and its relationship with change management .. in the satisfaction of the deans and department Chairmen.
Motivation is strength of doing work or resistance against that.
Transformational leadership - Wikipedia
So, strength and resistance are addressed as aspects of work engagement and their concept is constant with popular definition of motivation Latham and Pinder, ; Steers et al. The third dimension is dedication that refers to a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge Schaufeli and Bakker, In another word, this aspect can be seen when a person has a great involvement with his or her job Brown, Dedication has a lot of things in common with job involvement which is known as the amount of attachment and identification with job.
Previous studies have shown that job resources e. Literature review Several studies have examined the relationship between leadership and employee engagement, however, only a few have attempted to study the linkage specifically between the multidimensional constructs of transformational leadership and employee work engagement.Transformational Leadership
The concept of work engagement has gained momentum because of its predictive value for job performance Bakker, ; Schaufeli and Salanova, Leadership plays an important role while dealing with diverse mix of employees that are increasing rapidly in organizations Sparks et al. Other definitions of transformational leadership have been proposed by Avolio et al. Likewise, Seltzer and Bass asserted that transformational leaders commanded by inspiring and encouraging their subordinates to use novel methods to solve problems.
Several adjectives have also been used in workplace literature to describe transformational leaders, such as charismatic, powerful, influential, trustworthy, confident, inspirational, motivating, exciting, world-class, and considerate Bass et al. In the latest investigations, the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness Moore,job satisfaction and organizational commitment Pillai et al.
Determining the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement is required in research field. In their recent review, Macey and Schneider listed various different definitions of work engagement. Work engagement is the amount of energy a person spends for doing his or her own works, and also, the earned effectiveness and efficiency of that work Maslach et al.
In this case, Sonnentag et al. It worth mentioning to name some antecedents of work engagement include job stress Demerouti et al. So, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the interrelationships between the multidimensional constructs of transformational leadership, as conceptualized by Avolio et al.
Materials and methods Participants and procedure In this study participants were employed from five public hospitals in Khuzestan province of Iran. All questionnaires were delivered to participants by researchers. On the front page there was an information letter, in which the study was introduced and confidentiality of the responses was emphasized.
Hypotheses Current research was carried out to evaluate one main hypothesis and several subsidiary hypotheses which are presented in the below: Transformational leadership is associated positively with work engagement.
Transformational leadership is associated positively with vigor. Transformational leadership is associated positively with dedication. Transformational leadership is associated positively with absorption.
Transformational leadership components are predictors of vigor. Transformational leadership components are predictors of dedication. Transformational leadership components are predictors of absorption. Tools Multifactor leadership questionnaire MLQ Transformational leadership was measured by multifactor leadership questionnaire designed by Bass and Avolio which evaluates two leadership styles include transactional and transformational leadership; but in this study, we just used the transformational one.
This contains 20 questions that the portion of inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration are equal.
It means that every one of last components would be assessed by 4 questions, but, it measures idealized influence by 8 questions. Bass and Avolio reported its reliability based on 14 studies in financial, industrial, military and medicine occupations between 0.
The validity is measured by correlating this scale to the leader behavior description questionnaire LBDQ. Shartle and all the validity results were significant and satisfactory.
Work engagement scale Schaufeli et al. Individualized Consideration IC - Transformational leaders demonstrate genuine concern for the needs and feelings of followers and help them self-actualize. This personal attention to each follower assists in developing trust among the organization's members and their authority figure s.
This is an important element because teams are able to rely on and work together so decisions can be made more quickly, the transformational leader increases their buy-in  Intellectual Stimulation IS - the leader challenges followers to be innovative and creative, they encourage their followers to challenge the status quo.
A common misunderstanding is that transformational leaders are "soft," but the truth is that they constantly challenge followers to higher levels of performance. Characteristics[ edit ] Five major personality traits have been identified as factors contributing to the likelihood of an individual displaying the characteristics of a transformational leader. Different emphasis on different elements of these traits point to inclination in personality to inspirational leadership, transactional leadershipand transformational leadership.
These five traits are as follows.
Extraversion is generally seen as an inspirational trait usually exhibited in transformational leadership. Neuroticism[ edit ] Neuroticism generally gives an individual an anxiety related to productivity which, in a group setting can be debilitating to a degree where they are unlikely to position themselves in a role of transformational leadership due to lower self-esteem and a tendency to shirk from leadership responsibilities.
Agreeableness[ edit ] Although not a trait which specifically points to transformational leadership, leaders in general possess an agreeable nature stemming from a natural concern for others and high levels of individual consideration. Measurement[ edit ] One of the ways in which transformational leadership is measured is through use of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire MLQa survey which identifies different leadership characteristics based on examples and provides a basis for leadership training.
Early development was limited because the knowledge in this area was primitive, and as such, finding good examples for the items in the questionnaire was difficult. The current version of the MLQ5X includes 36 items that are broken down into 9 scales with 4 items measuring each scale.
Subsequent validation work by John Antonakis and his colleagues provided strong evidence supporting the validity and reliability of the MLQ5X.
Although other researchers have still been critical of the MLQ model, since no one has been able to provide dis-confirming evidence of the theorized nine-factor model with such large sample sizes as those published by Antonakis.
In regards to transformational leadership, the first 5 components - Idealized Attributes, Idealized Behaviors, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, and Individualized Consideration - are considered to be transformational leadership behaviors.
Effectiveness as compared to other leadership styles[ edit ] Studies have shown that transformational leadership styles are associated with positive outcomes in relation to other leadership styles.
According to studies performed by Lowe, Kroeck, and Sivasubramaniam, charisma or Idealized Influence was found to be a variable that was most strongly related to leader effectiveness among MLQ scales. For example, it can be more effective when applied to smaller, privately held firms than complex organizations based on its outreach effect with members of the organization.
Transformational leaders look towards changing the future to inspire followers and accomplish goals, whereas transactional leaders seek to maintain the status quo, not aiming for progress. Transactional leaders frequently get results from employees by using authority, while transformational leaders have a true vision for their company, are able to inspire people, and are entirely committed to their work.
The MLQ does test for some transactional leadership elements - Contingent Reward and Management-by-Exception - and the results for these elements are often compared to those for the transformational elements tested by the MLQ.
Studies have shown transformational leadership practices lead to higher satisfaction with leader among followers and greater leader effectiveness, while transactional practices lead to higher follower job satisfaction and leader job performance.
This leads to subordinates having a free hand in deciding policies and methods. Studies have shown that while transformational leadership styles are associated with positive outcomes, laissez-faire leadership is associated with negative outcomes, especially in terms of follower satisfaction with leader and leader effectiveness.
The results indicated a hierarchy of leadership styles and related subcomponents.