Julius Caesar - HISTORY
Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July BCE (though some cite as his When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. Caesar was treated well and consistently maintained a friendly relationship. Caesar was born into an aristocratic family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan. Julius Caesar was born in Subura, Rome in the year BC. He was born to an aristocratic family that could trace their bloodlines back to the founding of Rome.
The war against Spartacus took place around this time 73—71 BCbut it is not recorded what role, if any, Caesar played in it. He was elected quaestor for 69 BC,  and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Juliawidow of Marius, and included images of Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession. His own wife Cornelia also died that year.
He requested, and was granted, an early discharge from his duties, and returned to Roman politics. On his return in 67 BC,  he married Pompeiaa granddaughter of Sulla. This was a gamble as it placed him in early debt but allowed voters traveling to the city to see the work he had done. He was elected aedile and restored the trophies of Marius's victories; a controversial move given the Sullan regime was still in place.
He also brought prosecutions against men who had benefited from Sulla's proscriptions, and spent a great deal of borrowed money on public works and games, outshining his colleague Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus.
He was also suspected of involvement in two abortive coup attempts. In 63 a tribune, Titus Labienusprosecuted the elderly optimate senator Gaius Rabirius for the killing, 37 years previously, of the populist tribune Lucius Appuleius Saturninuswho had been declared a public enemy by the Senate after a candidate for the consulship had been murdered during an election. Caesar was one of the two judges, and Suetonius says he had bribed Labienus to bring the prosecution.
During his appeal, a procedural technicality was contrived - the praetor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer took down the military flag from the Janiculum hill, indicating foreign invasion - and proceedings were adjourned.
The prosecution was never resumed. The purpose of the trial is obscure, but it has been interpreted as a challenge to the use of the senatus consultum ultimum. Pontifex Maximus[ edit ] The same year, Caesar ran for election to the post of Pontifex Maximuschief priest of the Roman state religion, after the death of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Piuswho had been appointed to the post by Sulla.
There were accusations of bribery by all sides. Caesar is said to have told his mother on the morning of the election that he would return as Pontifex Maximus or not at all, expecting to be forced into exile by the enormous debts he had run up to fund his campaign.
He won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing, possibly because the two older men split their votes. During the debate, Caesar was passed a note. Marcus Porcius Catowho would become his most implacable political opponent, accused him of corresponding with the conspirators, and demanded that the message be read aloud.
Caesar passed him the note, which, embarrassingly, turned out to be a love letter from Cato's half-sister Servilia. On Cicero's evidence that he had reported what he knew of the plot voluntarily, however, he was cleared, and one of his accusers, and also one of the commissioners, were sent to prison. Scandal[ edit ] Praetorship[ edit ] While praetor in 62 BC, Caesar supported Metellus Nepos, now tribune, in proposing controversial legislation that would recall Pompey and his army in order to quell the rising disorder in Italy.
Caesar joined the army and left Rome in order to avoid Sulla and his allies. When Sulla died, Caesar returned to Rome. He was now a military hero from his years in the army.
He quickly rose up the ranks in the Roman government. He made allies with powerful men such as the general Pompey the Great and the wealthy Crassus. Caesar was an excellent speaker and the people of Rome loved him.
Consul and General At the age of 40 Julius Caesar was elected to consul. Consul was the highest ranking position in the Roman Republic. The consul was like a president, but there were two consuls and they only served for one year.
At the end of his year as consul, Caesar became governor of the province of Gaul.
Julius Caesar Biography
As governor of Gaul, Caesar was in charge of four Roman legions. He was a very effective governor and general. He conquered all of Gaul. He gained the respect and honor from his army and soon was considered alongside Pompey as the greatest general in the Roman army. Many of the leaders were jealous of Caesar and his following. Even Pompey became jealous and soon Caesar and Pompey became rivals. Caesar had the support of the people and Pompey had the support of the aristocrats.
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Caesar announced that he was going to return to Rome and run for consul again. The Roman Senate replied that he must give up the command of his army first.
Caesar refused and the Senate said he was a traitor. Caesar began to march his army to Rome. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen.
He could not do both in the time available. He asked the senate for permission to stand in absentia, but Cato blocked the proposal. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship. The election was sordid — even Catowith his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in favour of one of Caesar's opponents.
Caesar won, along with conservative Marcus Bibulus. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds for a decade, so Caesar tried to reconcile them.
Biography for Kids: Julius Caesar
The three of them had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate "rule of three men"was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter Julia. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, a move which intimidated the triumvirate's opponents. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but he was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters.
His lictors had their fasces broken, two high magistrates accompanying him were wounded, and he had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts proved ineffective in obstructing Caesar's legislation. Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar.
The term of his governorship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one. Gallic Wars The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests Caesar was still deeply in debt, but there was money to be made as a governor, whether by extortion  or by military adventurism.
Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces bordered on unconquered territory, and parts of Gaul were known to be unstable. Some of Rome's Gallic allies had been defeated by their rivals at the Battle of Magetobrigawith the help of a contingent of Germanic tribes.
The Romans feared these tribes were preparing to migrate south, closer to Italy, and that they had warlike intent. Caesar raised two new legions and defeated these tribes.
Julius Caesar - Wikipedia
Caesar treated this as an aggressive move and, after an inconclusive engagement against the united tribes, he conquered the tribes piecemeal. Meanwhile, one of his legions began the conquest of the tribes in the far north, directly opposite Britain. The Lucca Conference renewed the First Triumvirate and extended Caesar's governorship for another five years. In 55 BC, Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by two Germanic tribes, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge.
Late that summer, having subdued two other tribes, he crossed into Britainclaiming that the Britons had aided one of his enemies the previous year, possibly the Veneti of Brittany. He advanced inland, and established a few alliances. However, poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, which forced Caesar to leave Britain for the last time. While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had died in childbirth.
Caesar tried to re-secure Pompey's support by offering him his great-niece in marriage, but Pompey declined. In 53 BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of the east. Rome was on the brink of civil war. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married the daughter of a political opponent of Caesar.
The Triumvirate was dead. Vercingetorix 's attempt in 52 BC to unite them against Roman invasion came too late. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason.
Upon crossing the RubiconCaesar, according to Plutarch and Suetonius, is supposed to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menanderin Greek, " the die is cast ". Pompey, despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who only had his Thirteenth Legion with him, did not intend to fight. Caesar pursued Pompey, hoping to capture Pompey before his legions could escape. After an astonishing day route-march, Caesar defeated Pompey's lieutenants, then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Illyria, where, in July 48 BC in the battle of DyrrhachiumCaesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat.
In an exceedingly short engagement later that year, he decisively defeated Pompey at Pharsalusin Greece.
The owner of the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii walled off the room with this painting, most likely in immediate reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Augustus in 30 BC, when artistic depictions of Caesarion would have been considered a sensitive issue for the ruling regime.
There, Caesar was presented with Pompey's severed head and seal-ring, receiving these with tears. Perhaps as a result of the pharaoh's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra. The royal barge was accompanied by additional ships, and Caesar was introduced to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs. Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage—in Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery—and probably fathered a son called Caesarion.