About Supervisor-Subordinate Relations | Your Business
The supervisor-subordinate relationship should be clearly defined in your a subordinate is a decision you make when you hire the individual. in relationships, 2) learning to trust as single-loop and double-loop learning (see .. What is the meaning of trust in a superior-subordinate relationship?. In an organization, communication occurs between members of different hierarchical positions. Coordinating both the individual goals and department goals, helps individuals understand their company's aspirations. Procedures and .
Graicunas thought the theoretical evidence in favor of limiting the span of control was overwhelming. For one thing, he cited the limited span of attention, which was then exemplified by research suggesting people could deal with no more than six digits. Graicunas also pointed to what he saw as an error in thinking, namely, that the relationships to be managed consisted only of those between the superior and individual subordinates. But, as he pointed out, there were relationships between subordinates and between the superior and groups of subordinates that had to be factored in to the equation.
The Span of Control - the formulas of V A Graicunas
Graicunas summed up the prevailing view of the reason for limiting the span of control in these words: And there is no condition which more quickly produces a sense of indecision among subordinates or more effectively hampers communication than being responsible to a superior who has too wide a span of control p. First, of course, is the tendency of people to want to report directly to the boss, whomever that might be.
Second, is the tendency to build empires. Third is the pressure to reduce the costs of management overhead. Fourth is a commendable desire to shorten the chain of command. Fifth, extending the span of control necessarily flattens the organization and drives authority and responsibility downward, both of which are favorites of those who would democratize an organization.
Relationship between Superior and Subordinate
Sixth, the existence in seemingly well-run organizations of spans of control larger than the five or six recommended by Graicunas and Urwick invalidates the concept of limiting the span of control. The main thrust of Urwick's article was to counter the arguments being made against limits on the span of control.
In all cases, Urwick pointed out, the benefits of flattening the organization, forcing authority and initiative downward, and reducing the overhead costs of management had to be weighed against the costs of confusion and indecision that accompany a span of control that is too broad. Often, he claimed, the latter outweighed the former. The fundamental question, of course, was and still is how many is too many?
These figures were tempered with considerations of the scope and scale of the work involved and for which the subordinate was responsible.Director and subordinate
For example, a group of six factory workers reporting to a supervisor presents a less complex problem than six division presidents reporting to the CEO of a large company.
And six presidents of completely independent divisions presents a simpler problem than six vice presidents of closely integrated divisions. Regardless of these considerations, the number of relationships a superior must attend to rises exponentially after the fourth subordinate.
Thus Graicunas cautioned any executive seeking to add a fifth directly reporting subordinate to consider the fact that this would add 20 new relationships for himself and nine for each of his current colleagues.
The total number of relationships would increase by 56, going from 44 to As Graicunas noted, this was "an increase in complexity of per cent in return for a 20 per cent increase in working capacity. Three basic kinds of relationships were described.
Direct single relationships between superior and individual subordinates. Cross relationships between individual subordinates. The overall purpose is to create a sense of expectations and requirements in the subordinate's mind.
The last purpose of downward communication is to communicate a sense of belonging to subordinates to promote them to become a part of the organization's culture. This may include motivating subordinates to attend special events that are sponsored by the organization.
Better coordination Improved individual performance through the development of intelligent participation Improved morale Improved consumer relations Improved industrial relations.
Upward Communication[ edit ] Upward communication is the process of transmitting information from the bottom levels of an organization to the top levels.
Relationship between Superior and Subordinate
It includes judgments, estimations, propositions, complaints, grievance, appeals, reports, etc. It is very important because it serves as the response on the success of downward communication.
Management comes to know how well its policies, plans, strategies and objectives are adopted by those working at lower levels of the organization. When a manager is open to upward communication, they help foster cooperation, gain support, and reduce frustration.
The channel of communication is a very significant variable in the upward communication process. Channel refers to the means of which messages are transported. It can be face-to-face, over the telephone, written, etc. Communication channel affects subordinate's overall satisfaction with upward communication. Certain channels are easily ignored, which can leave subordinates less satisfied with upward communication.
The most effective way to implement open communication is for management to engage in regular face-to-face conversations with employees in order to express their level of care for the work being done. This line of open communication makes employees feel more comfortable disclosing any personal issues they are experiencing within the organization.
Openness in communication requires both openness in message sending and openness in message receiving between superiors and subordinates.
Certain types of messages facilitate open communication better. Supervisory messages are preferable for both superiors and subordinates when they are encouraging or reciprocating, rather than responses that are either neutral or negative. Openness in message receiving requires a willingness to listen to the message without jumping to conclusions even when the message is not what you wanted to hear.
An open communication relationship differs from a closed by the reactions and types of feedback given, not the message itself.