Adopt | Definition of Adopt by Merriam-Webster
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another, usually a child, .. Other studies provide evidence that adoptive relationships can form along other lines. A study The best interests of the child: the least detrimental alternative (book), Joseph Goldstein, , p, web:Books-Google- HkC. While the dictionary definition of adoption-related terms can be narrow, adoption by choice into a relationship, especially to take voluntarily as one's own child. Adoption comes from the Old French word adoptare, meaning "to chose for relation between persons not related by blood; the adopted child is entitled to all .
Attachment theory facilitates in comprehending the frame of mind of these children, when they come from emotionally turbulent backgrounds and how some, if not all behavior issues can be attempted to be resolved to recognize children better and to create a nurturing relationship between adopted child and new parents.
Findings Focus group method was deployed to collect the data via un-restricted non-probability sampling approach; data was quantified for evaluating the hypotheses via t-test of equality of means. Conclusion It is concluded that the task of creating an enriched attachment relationship with an adopted child depends more on parents, normally non working parents and female parents while quality time and care is given somehow the other to young and female kids by either of the parents for establishing quality attachment.
Quality time being bestowed to kids translates the category and intensity of parents- children associations. Attachment theory, Adopted children, Secure attachment behavior, Avoidant attachment behavior, Ambivalent attachment behavior, Disorganized attachment behavior Introduction: Provence and Lipton explained foster children as promiscuously friendly.
The attachments theory by Bowlby ; Harlow and Zimmermann suggested that children are pre-programmed since birth to form attachments with others as this will help them to live on.
The determining factor of attachment is not food but concern and responsiveness. This technique was earlier studied by Ainsworth for Uganda studies and Baltimore studies Ainsworth et al. During the test they briefly introduced a stranger in the room while the mother left for a few minutes and then she returned.
They were able to conclude from this test that infants are capable of different reactions when their mother leaves and joins them again or when a stranger is introduced temporarily instead of a mother. They recorded reactions such as crying, screaming, going to the door when mother leaves them and on her return they are calm and back to exploring their environment.
Attachment behaviors There are few types of attachment behaviors. Attachment theory describes them as: Secure Ambivalent Disorganized A secure attachment with a parent or caregiver is considered to be the most positive one where the caregiver is responsive to the child completely and makes the child feel secure.
Bowlby further explained that such positive attachment experience let the child form future relationships influenced by early childhood experiences.
It endorses the feeling of approval by their caregiver making them feel good about themselves for e. In avoidant attachment children try to be caretakers in the relationship as their parents are not responsive to their needs.
They have parents who frighten the child and are the source of comfort as well as fear which develops another set of behavior pattern where the child is unable to formulate his behavior and thinking. In ambivalent attachment children have a difficult time dealing with their anger and resentment towards their parent.
In disorganized attachment children experienced no positive early childhood relationships due to neglect, lack of presence of attachment figures or abuse Bowlby et al.
Are parents really attached to their adopted children?
Attachment behaviors are necessary in order to create some meaning out of the world around the child, to develop certain emotional attachment in their relationships such as: It helps child to understand how to relate to others. For the strange situation classification, Ainsworth et al. Incompatible primary care is found with insecure ambivalent attached infants. Insecure avoidant infants are related to more insensitive primary case.
For example, securely attachment children have an optimistic working model and mental demonstration of others as being supportive while also considering themselves respectful Jacobsen and Hoffman Ambivalent children have pessimistic self image and overstate their poignant responses as means to gain attention Kobak et al.
“What does adoption mean to a child?”
Insecure attachment style in related with increased emotional and social behavioral troubles. The strange situation test is taken as a reliable test to assess the attachments of children. According to Melhuishthe strange situation is a method widely used to identify the infant attachment to a caregiver.
Lamb pointed out as being artificial and lacks environmental validity. The reason is that the child is placed in an artificial environment and the process of mother entering and leaving room follows a preset script. Lamb criticized that Ainsworth strange situation experiment only studies the child behavior with mother and not the other types of attachments to a father, grandmother etc. Marrone explained that though the Strange Situation has been pointed out for being stressful for children but it is also modeling daily experiences, as mothers do go away from their babies for a short span of time in different settings and often also leave them with new people for instance baby sitters.
Understanding what is adoption Adoption is a process by which an individual can adopt a child becoming primary caregiver and is able to assume all rights and responsibilities from the original parents. Children are placed for adoption sometimes by their own parents, relatives or different agencies depending on the circumstances Bartholet Adoption is seen as the most favorable option for children who have been neglected, abused or suffering from trauma Oppenheim and Goldsmith Most children are able to develop the bonds and as a result, this attachment becomes the basis for mixing into family and for their psychosomatic development Hughes Sometimes, children face problems while settling down in new homes, having various placements, which brings in gaps in their development to form attachments with their care-givers, irrespective of how caring and loving their care-givers or families are.
It is important that these children are aided in a specialized manner and programming so that they can become part of families Hughes Findings which used story-stem procedures Hodges et al. Disturbance in adoption does not mean that only the child has attachment issues but can be many other issues.
Also, the child has been given for adoption at different places for adoption and that is creating a disrupting behavior translating into anxiety about forming an attachment Hughes It is important to have good skill set and highly committed people working in the adoption agencies as they are responsible for placing a child in a new home.
The same child experiences positive or negative attachment behaviors. These agencies should also cater to the proper rules and procedures for minimizing the attachment problems children have in their new homes; agencies should make the new parents fully aware about the child attachment issues, help the child needs and might need in future.
A male baby is adopted by a Jewish family and is raised in the Jewish religion. These are just a few of the types of situations that adopted children find themselves confronted with either during childhood or after they enter adulthood.
Other Sources of Information: There are many autobiographical books available, written by those who were adopted and writing about their experiences that provide lots of information about the issues experienced by these people. In addition, a Google search of the internet will yield lots of research studies done on this very issue. Issues faced by adopted persons: It is very common for those who were adopted to feel rejected and abandoned by their birth parents.
This is accompanied by feelings of grief and loss. There is no set time or age when these feeling surface but, sooner or later, they do. Feelings of loss and rejection are often accompanied by a damaged sense of self esteem. There is an understandable tendency to think that "something must be wrong with me for my birth parents to have give me away. Guilt accompanies loss and grief because the adopted individual believes that they are being disloyal to the people who adopted, loved and raised them.She was adopted 😍😍 Beautiful Brother-Sister Relationship.👌👌
They do not want to hurt or betray their adoptive mother or father. Feelings of guilt and fears of being disloyal were what prevented the girl in case "C" from asking the obvious question, "why am I in your wedding pictures if I was not born yet?
In cases B and D there is a disconnect with the original heritage of the birth parents. For the Asian young woman, raised in a large family with many siblings, the obvious racial differences did come to "haunt her" later on. While she wished to visit the Asian nation of her birth, she was so totally identified with being American, and even "while" that she feared stirring up her past.
She, too, did not want to cause any hurt to her adoptive parents. However, it must be said for them, that they encouraged and offered to help her in her search. Despite this encouragement, she was not ready to do any search. Long discussions in therapy never revealed what she feared. According to the great psychologist, Eric Erikson, adolescence involves a search for self identity.
While this search is difficult for most teenagers, it presents special problems for adoptee. Assuming they never met their natural parents and family and have no idea of their genetic background, they are left with a gigantic gap in their search to answer the age old question, "Who am I. In all of the cases above, a huge gap existed in this information. Except for the Asian young woman, all were denied any information, mostly because the adoptive families, either wittingly or unwittingly, did not provide necessary facts.
Missing genetic information is important for obvious medical reasons. It is important for everyone to have knowledge of the medical history because it can provide clues to genetic diseases.
Are parents really attached to their adopted children?
For example, in case D, the patient entered psychotherapy unaware that he had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. His family was unaware of this as well. If more had been known about the birth parents, it might have been possible to predict his childhood problems at home and at school. It was only after entering psychotherapy that he was evaluated and diagnosed with ADHD and appropriately treated for this. The information was relieving to both him and his adoptive parents because everyone now knew that he was never "bad" or "dumb" but afflicted with this disorder of the brain.
Many adults who were adopted struggle with fears that they will be disloyal to their adoptive parents if they search for their natural parents. In my experience, the only real exception to this is when adoptive parents make the very deliberate and conscious effort to inform and encourage their child to do a search and to let them know how important that is.
Unfortunately, as illustrated in cases A and C, there are people who discourage such a search and even lie to their adopted child about their origins.