Is there a difference between rural and urban poverty | liberty mandishona - pugliablog.info
Poverty is deprivation of basic necessities in life like food, clothing, shelter, health and non- intangible things like opportunities or rights (World Bank, ). Rural poverty refers to poverty in rural areas, including factors of rural society, rural economy, . They claim the state of evidence regarding these causal links is weak but some aspects of infrastructure . Inequality between urban and rural areas, and where rural poverty is most prevalent, is in countries where the adult. deepening social polarization and increasing poverty in both urban and rural areas. urban relationships and of the success of the relationship between urban.
It also involves allowing women to have separate tenancy rights and granting women the right to claim an equal share of family land and resources upon divorceabandonment, widowhoodand for inheritance purposes. Bangladesh[ edit ] Improved infrastructure in Bangladesh increased agricultural production by 32 percent through its effect on prices and access to inputs and technology. Moreover, because of increased mobility among rural households, a rise in access to social services was noted, as well as an increase in overall health.
The most effective innovations are based on the active participation of small farmers, who are involved in both defining the problems and implementing and evaluating solutions. Smallholder technological developments have focused on processes such as nutrient recycling, integrated pest management, integration of crop agriculture and livestock, use of inland and marine water sources, soil conservation, and use of genetic engineering and biotechnology to reduce fertilizer requirements.
Access to credit[ edit ] Providing access to credit and financial services provides an entry point to improve rural productivity as well as stimulating small-scale trading and manufacturing. Increased credit helps expand markets to rural areas, thus promoting rural development.
6 charts that illustrate the divide between rural and urban America | PBS NewsHour
The ability to acquire credit also combats systems of bonded or exploitative labor by encouraging self-employment.
Credit policy is most effective when provided in conjunction with other services such as technology and marketing training. Diversification[ edit ] Agricultural diversification can provide rural families with higher income and greater food security.
Policies related to diversification have also focused on crop rotation to increase productivity, as well as improving the production of traditional food crops such as cassava, cowpeas, plantains, and bananas rather than promoting the growth of more precarious cash crops.
These crops tend to be at the core of farming systems among the rural poor and are generally more drought resistant and can survive under poor soil conditions.
Improving the productivity and marketing of these crops promotes food and income security among rural households. Requirements are based on knowledge and expertise of practice and that all nurses work within their scope of practice.
The CNO is responsible for providing quality care to the public including making healthcare accessible. Barriers to Accessing Health Care[ edit ] For those living in rural Canada, they may face various challenges when trying to access health care.
Difficulties which rural areas experience when accessing health care include long distances between health services, lack of transportation, increase amount of elderly, fewer health care providersand limited awareness of resources available.
Transportation is a significant factor that is a barrier to accessing health care. In rural areas an individual may have to travel great distances to seek medical attention, road quality may be very poor, weather conditions effecting driving, and rural areas seldom have access to public transportation. A large percentage of people over 65 have a number of comorbiditiesand need regular visits to a family doctor, the cost of regular transportation to a healthcare provider can be substantial.
For many living in rural poverty, financial difficulties impede a person from being able to own a vehicle. Although the Canada Health Act provides everyone with access to health care without financial obligation, people of lower socioeconomic status typically had lower education level and were less likely to seek medical advice from a health care professional. Individuals at risk for living in poverty are those with mental health issues, disabilitiessingle mothers, individuals suffering from addictionand immigrants unable to speak English.
The individuals seeking the assistance are left to cope on their own. Community donations and volunteers play a large role in community support remaining open to the public in rural setting. Physician Accessibility[ edit ] The Canadian public feel that accessing health care is perceived as poor, people wait longer periods of time to see physicians.
There a few physicians available to support this population. This beings challenges as some relationships take years to develop trust with a family physician, and a bad experience with one can bring challenges when having to transfer to a new physician. There is an increase in number of those living with chronic illness, greater elder population, and fewer health care professionals available in rural communities.
Although rural living can be challenging for any population, there are several groups in which are considered more vulnerable to poverty. Although single male parent families are at risk, families with a woman as the only parent are at a much greater risk. Formal education is also a challenge for rural women because of the general low income status and high cost of education. Without formal education, rural women often cannot find good paying jobs that provide stability and benefits to support their families.
In order to find affordable housing for a single parent income, one must often look outside of town to more remote areas. Although housing is cheaper, the employment opportunities decrease; causing women to look for employment closer to town or within the community.
Wages in rural Canada are lower than those in urban areaswhich contributes to the overall lower income and poor income status among these families. For women supporting a family, the poor wages, low employment rate, high cost of living and lack of financial support are the risk factors in which increase the incidence of poverty among this population.
If the children in the family attend school, transportation to school is often limited to those residing in remote areas. Providing or paying for alternative transportation for children to attend school is also an additional cost. With a more direct focus on elderly poverty, rural women over the age of 65, are found to have a much lower annual income than adults living in non-rural communities. There are several factors that put the rural elderly, especially women, at risk of poverty.
Rural women over the age of 65 had the least amount of public sector funding and government support out of all of the Canadian populations. For many, this is not enough to meet their daily living needs, let alone health care expenses and additional cost of living expenses. Although all populations are affected, the elderly experience a major negative impact.
This means that other means of transportation is required; however there are very limited public transportation services available, especially for individuals living in extreme remote areas. The elderly in rural Canada often live in older, single family homes that often have larger property sizes. Maintaining a home is costly. In rural areas, public services are often hard to find and can be expensive.
With the lack of services, the elderly often find they are unable to maintain their homes or perform maintenance duties. Single parent families in rural communities are more likely to have a low income and poor economical status. In addition, financial support is often not enough to ensure the children are provided with the basic essential of daily living.
Children of poverty are less likely to achieve a high school diploma or a post secondary educationdue to the financial strain of the family and inability to afford to get to school or to move away. Young adults in rural Canada are extremely susceptible to poverty for many additional reasons.
Jobs are incredibly hard to find for young adults because of their lack of experience. Employers will often require experience in order to be a successful candidate. With the huge shortage of jobs already existing, young rural Canadians find it challenging to start their careers. But vast as it is, the AIDS tragedy is unlikely to remove the opportunities for human advance, including rural and urban poverty reduction, through demographic transition, and rising ratios of workers an savers to dependants.
Furthermore from the above differentiation of poverty levels in both urban and rural areas is marginal when one looks at it from the livelihoods spectrum. Urban poverty also reflects those in rural areas when one looks at inequalities faced by women in securing livelihoods. Urban women also face similar inequalities to their rural sisters in the form of low capabilities, low rewards in the labour market, exclusion through social stigma and discrimination, a lack of productive assets and resources relative to men.
This is a view mainly prominent with the grievance perspective which argues that relative deprivation leads livelihood susceptibility and poverty amongst both women from rural and urban areas. Thus they view both urban and rural women as having similar livelihood grievances and these grievances might be economic and inequality; political such as lack of democracy, lack of minority rights or political participation.
This was evidenced in Zimbabwe during the land reform process where women do not have the right to access land without a husband this was for both the rural and urban women thus in some way it affected their livelihoods and in a way leading to poverty.
However, rural and urban areas largely differ in poverty levels. But urban poverty is clearly lower than rural poverty. So is average depth of poverty. Most country data use national poverty lines and are based on nationally determined nutritional requirements, with an assumption made about the share of non-food expenditure in the minimum necessary budget. Rural-urban poverty gaps remain wide in Latin America, in spite of much higher mean incomes than in Africa or South Asia, and some falls in rural and urban poverty.
This is due partly to the choice of high national poverty lines but also to higher inequality. Faster falls in rural and urban poverty occurred in Asia, especially but not only East Asia, but region-wide ratios of rural to urban poverty have risen sinceespecially in China. Most of Africa except Ethiopia and Uganda has seen little poverty reduction since the late s but a fall in the exceptionally high ratios of rural to urban poverty.
Rates of poverty reduction, and its responsiveness to faster economic growth, have been substantially lower since the late s than in s Sharp rises in poverty, especially in farming areas, have occurred in ten transitional countries since the late s. This reflects collapsing safety nets and a failure either to maintain subsidies to the poor within unreformed agriculture or to undertake egalitarian land reforms except in Albania, Armenia, Romania and Viet Nam.
Urban poverty is not marginal in the context of rural poverty due to differences in physical assets needed for securing a livelihood in other words ways of reducing poverty. According to Scoonesphysical capital or assets comprises the basic infrastructure and producer goods needed to support livelihoods, such as affordable transport, secure shelter and buildings, adequate water supply and sanitation, clean, affordable energy and access to information.
Its influence poverty system is best fit for representation through the notion of opportunity costs or 'trade-offs', as a poor infrastructure can preclude education, access to health services and income generation. In urban areas poverty reduction is mainly more influenced by infrastructure as compared to rural areas thus leading to usually higher levels of poverty in rural areas. According to urban bias theorists rural livelihoods are affected due to the fact that more infrastructure and services are concentrated in urban areas.
From the urban bias theory the concentration of services in urban areas in developing countries was necessitated by colonialists who built these services to provide for the white minority, however with the coming of independence urban bias was inherited by the black elite. The fact that most industries in South Africa and the whole of the region are concentrated in urban areas therefore implies an influx of people into urban areas, meaning that those who work in them need places to stay.
When one looks when the world cup was hosted in South Africa, a lot of people migrated to urban areas such as Durban, Pretoria and Johannesburg where they did not have places to stay so they rented rooms leading to the enhancement of livelihoods of the urban dwellers. By so doing one can say urban livelihoods do not reflect the nature of rural livelihoods in Developing countries.
Furthermore, livelihoods in rural areas depend from those in urban areas and this view is drawn from urban bias theorists.Rural Urban Fringe Hindi Optional Geography UPSC PCS
Urban bias theorists argue that there is higher rates of poverty in the countryside than in the city, and it is due to urban biased policies which transferred resources from the poor to the less poor. These policies in developing harmed the formation of human capital in rural areas the development of better educated and more healthy rural workersled to the draining away of such talents and wealth as could be accumulated in the countryside the rural skills drain of educated younger workersand represented poor value for money at the margin Lipton strongly maintained, a given sum of government money would earn higher returns in the countryside — specifically in the small agriculture sector and via rural off-farm employment creation — than in cities or large-scale urban-based industries.
Evidence can be drawn from rural Zimbabwe where few industries and Universities are located in urban areas than rural areas forcing youth to migrate from rural to urban areas thus leading to rural brain drain and lose of human capital. This loss has affected agriculture one of the mainstay activity in rural areas due to shortage of labour as only the old age have been left behind.
Thus with agriculture being affected by migration those left behind are depending on remittances and food from their urban relatives. Thus by so doing one can note that urban poverty do not reflect those of rural areas. The fact that urban poverty is not a marginal issue in the context of rural areas can be evident if one looks at the theory of self-generated theory.
The theory on self-generated or endogenous urbanization suggests that urbanization has far much reaching effects on poverty reduction and with growth it requires two separate prerequisites the generation of surplus products that sustain people in non-agricultural activities Childe, ; Harvey, necessitated by industries and the achievement of a level of social development that allows large communities to be socially viable and stable Lampard, Examination of the sectoral composition of growth in countries that, over the long term, are growing rapidly enough to converge with the United States in per capita income that is, growing by more than about 2 percent a year shows that this linkage is widespread.
In every one of these countries, one or both of the urban sectors led the growth process; no country has sustained high growth driven primarily by agriculture. Within the above background, one major factor that may help understand the reason why poverty has been chronic in rural areas in states such as Zimbabwe is due to programs and policies that were implemented in the past.
The government of Zimbabwe has given excessive attentiveness of growth to agriculture through the land reform at the cost of empowering the rural and urban citizens by way of either providing those with jobs or creating a conducive working environment for those already employed in the same way they have done for urban dwellers Opoku, Thus for a state to be successful a government should focus on industrial innovations rather than focusing on agriculture as the mainstay of the rural and urban economy as they are being faced by climate change problems.
Thus by so doing one can say that urban poverty is not marginal due to the fact that they are both not being provided with jobs and a conducive working environment.
Furthermore, rural areas are more at risk from large falls in employment induced by climate; from droughts and floods; from illness and high mortality; and often from war, cattle raiding, or civil disturbance. The poor are especially vulnerable to most such risks. They are also less resilient: Rural people, especially in remote areas, also have weaker access to governmental, financial, or insurance support. On the other hand, rural people in emergency situations are usually supported by closer links to community or kin, and are less vulnerable than townspeople to macroeconomic phenomena such as cyclical unemployment or inflation,51 though not to market collapses affecting particular products.
The rural and the poor are, in general, much more vulnerable to fluctuations in well-being than the urban and the non-poor: But this is not true of some of the rural and the poor; their main problem in irrigated areas with adequate primary health provision is low average well-being, not sharp downward shocks.
Urban poverty across all regions has also not been marginal when compared to rural areas due to the fact that most important sectors are located in urban areas leading to a loss in human capital in rural areas thereby increasing poverty levels in rural settings and more poverty in turn.
The rural lack human capital is evident In West and Central Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and East and Southern Africa were the public provision of health services, education, water and sanitation is strongly biased towards urban areas.
In East and Southern Africa, households led by people who have little education are poorer than those with some education.