Germanic-Roman contacts - Wikipedia
In general, German society was tribal, that is, it emphasized the relation and the Romans launched a drive against the restless German tribes between the. The Germanic people occupied large forests and poor farming land in the Romans passed a law in AD prohibiting marriage between Romans and themselves. (1) A message sent to Caesar by leaders of the Usipete tribe in 55 BC. The origins of the Germanic peoples are obscure. that the Romans learned to distinguish precisely between the Germans and the Celts, in Tacitus' time the various Germanic peoples were conscious of their relationship with one another.
Further west and south in Europe-proper, the linguistic presence of the Germanic languages is almost negligible.
Despite the fact that the Visigoths ruled what is now Spain for upwards of years, there are almost no recognizable Gothic words borrowed into Spanish. The dialect of the Germanic people who remained in Scandinavia is not generally called Ingvaeonic, but is classified as North Germanicwhich developed into Old Norse. However, the classical "Germani" near the Rhine, to whom the term was originally applied by Caesar, may not have even spoken Germanic languages, let alone a language recognizably ancestral to modern Dutch.
Frankish, and later Dutch, Luxembourgish and the Frankish dialects of German in Germany has continuously been intelligible to some extent with both "Ingvaeonic" Low German, and some "Suebian" High German dialects, with which they form a spectrum of continental dialects. All these dialects or languages appear to have formed by the mixing of migrating peoples after the time of Caesar. So it is not clear if these medieval dialect divisions correspond to any mentioned by Tacitus and Pliny. Indeed, in Tacitus Tac.
By CE west Germanic speakers had apparently developed a distinct language continuum with extensive loaning from Latin due to their ongoing contact with the Romanswhereas the east Germanic languages were dying out. Combined, these languages are today spoken as a native tongue by more than million people worldwide. Indo-European migrations and Nordic Bronze Age Archaeological and linguistic evidence from a period known as the Nordic Bronze Age indicates that a common material culture existed between the Germanic tribes that inherited the southern regions of Scandinavia, along with the Schleswig-Holstein area and the area of what is now HamburgGermany.
Both the cattle and the horses of the Germans were of poor quality by Roman standards. The Iron Age had begun in Germany about four centuries before the days of Caesar, but even in his time metal appears to have been a luxury material for domestic utensils, most of which were made of wood, leather, or clay.
Of the larger metal objects used by them, most were still made of bronze, though this was not the case with weapons. Pottery was for the most part still made by hand, and pots turned on the wheel were relatively rare. The degree to which trade was developed in early Germany is obscure. There was certainly a slave tradeand many slaves were sold to the Romans. Such potters as used the wheel—and these were very few—and smiths and miners no doubt sold their products. But in general the average Germanic village is unlikely to have used many objects that had not been made at home.
But from the reign of Augustus onward, there was a huge increase in German imports from the Roman Empire. The German leaders were now able to buy whole categories of goods—glass vessels, red tableware, Roman weapons, brooches, statuettes, ornaments of various kinds, and other objects—that had not reached them before. These Roman products brought their owners much prestigebut how the Germans paid for them is not fully known.
In the period of the early Roman Empire, German weapons, both offensive and defensive, were characterized by shortage of metal. Their chief weapon was a long lance, and few carried swords. Helmets and breastplates were almost unknown. A light wooden or wicker shield, sometimes fitted with an iron rim and sometimes strengthened with leather, was the only defensive weapon.
This lack of adequate equipment explains the swift, fierce rush with which the Germans would charge the ranks of the heavily armed Romans. The Roman historian Tacitus 55 to A. They wore German costumes and followed German customs. They had reddish or blond hair, blue eyes, great stature, and generally powerful physiques. More fond of war than of work, they consumed quantities of a kind of beer in prolonged contests. Besides drinking, gambling was a favorite amusement.
The men were primarily fighters who scorned labor and relegated all agricultural and household tasks to women and slaves. German family life was commonly a model of simplicity and virtue. In general, German society was tribal, that is, it emphasized the relation and loyalties of kinship rather than of citizenship. An injury to his kin must be avenged by them unless they were compensated by a graded system of penalties, known as Wergeld.
Some tribes however, had coalesced into groups, which for lack of a better term, might be called "nations".
Over such nations ruled kings, at first hardly more than war leaders elected by the free men and subject to their wishes. But by the time they entered the Empire there was already a tendency to choose rulers from the same family, thus paving the way for hereditary succession. For hundreds of years the Germans had exerted pressure on the frontiers of the empire.
German warriors inflicted a terrible defeat on a Roman army, but four years later, a capable Roman leader, Marius, became a national hero when he outmaneuvered the Germans and defeated them.
Again in Julius Caesar's time, German invaders tried to conquer part of Gaul but were defeated. During the reign of Augustus, the Romans launched a drive against the restless German tribes between the Rhine and the Elbe rivers, but in 9 A.
Three legions were completely wiped out. From then on the Romans were content to hold the frontier on the Rhine-Danube line, and quiet continued for a long period. Again, in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, from to A. But after A. During tranquil interludes, the Romans and Germanic peoples had many opportunities for peaceful association.
Some Germans were permitted to enter the Roman Empire to settle on vacant lands. Others, captured in war, became slaves on Roman estates, and still others accepted service in the legions. If intermingling had been allowed to continue, the Germans might have been gradually assimilated into the empire. However, pressure from the German tribes suddenly turned the gradual infiltration into a rushing invasion. German tribes forced their way into all parts of the western Roman Empire.
In Asia, during the 4th century, restless nomads called Huns were on the march from the east. Mounted on swift horses, they attacked with lightning ferocity all tribes in their path. Crossing the Volga River, they conquered the Ostrogoths in eastern Europe. Fearing that the Huns would attack them also, the Visigoths implored Roman authorities for sanctuary in the empire.
The Roman officials agreed, promising them lands for settlement provided they came unarmed. Neither side lived up to the agreement, however, and the Visigoths, without land and facing starvation, began to sack Roman settlements.
Germanic peoples | pugliablog.info
When the Roman emperor Valens led a great army against the Visigoths, to the astonishment of Romans and Germans alike, the imperial force was scattered and the emperor slain. This battle on the field of Adrianople in A. German tribes outside the frontiers began to round up their cattle, mobilize their fighting men, and move toward the Roman borders. Marching southwestward under their leader Alaric, the Visigoths reached Rome in A. By that time other German tribes--the Franks, Vandals, and Burgundians--were moving into the empire.
And about A. To add to the tumult, the Huns, led by Attila, had also invaded the empire and were threatening to enslave or destroy both Romans and Germans. So, forgetting their own differences for a while, the Romans and Germans united against a common enemy.
Germanic peoples - Wikipedia
Shortly afterward Attila died and his savage cavalry drifted apart. The western empire collapsed. Meanwhile, the power of the emperors in Rome had fallen to a point where they had become merely puppets of the legionaries, many of whom were of German birth. In the A. In a strict sense, there was no "fall. Since the early decades of the 4th century, emperors at Rome had sensed the growing weakness of the empire in the West.
In the year A. Emperor Constantine had moved his capital to the city of Byzantium, in the eastern part of the empire, changing its name to Constantinople. By the end of that century, the Roman Empire had become permanently divided, with one emperor ruling the West and another in the East. Although separated, the two sections of the empire continued to be thought of as one.Fall of The Roman pugliablog.info the 15th Century: Crash Course World History #12
But the western part of the empire was breaking up. By the year A. The Italian peninsula was to become the scene of conflict and strife, and near the end of the 5th century, it was to fall under the rule of the Ostrogoths.