Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary In contrast, the association between obesity and a higher prevalence of. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are among the top 10 addition, one study examined the relation of obesity and smoking to LE and. The relationship between physical inactivity in adolescence and obesity in adulthood has been weak or non-existent in the few published longitudinal studies.
Smoking status was dichotomized into current smokers vs former or never smokers. Co-occurrence of behaviour-related risk factors smoking, physical inactivity and obesity was calculated as a sum of these risk factors and classified as 0, 1 and 2 or more risk factors. Outcome measures In each study cohort, we defined two health expectancy outcomes: In addition, we took into account mortality.
Self-rated health All participants were asked about their health status at each wave. Responses were categorized into good and suboptimal health. Individuals were defined as having a chronic disease if they reported one or more of these conditions.
The presence of chronic diseases at baseline first observation included in analysis included any chronic diseases reported before the age of 50 from available information on respondents. Health expectancy based on chronic diseases is hereafter labelled as chronic disease-free LE. Mortality This was ascertained from linked register data for each study cohort with follow-up censored on 31 December of the year in which data collection last took place for each study cohort.
Physical inactivity and obesity: A vicious circle
Statistical analyses Characteristics of the participating cohorts are presented at the first observation point, which refers to the date each participant is for the first time included in the dataset.
We applied multistate models to longitudinal data to obtain transition probabilities between health states. Discrete-time multistate life table models were used to estimate partial LE and healthy LE and chronic disease-free LE between the ages of 50 and 75 in total 26 years.
For both measures, three health states were defined: For healthy LE, there were four possible transitions between the health states, namely: For chronic disease-free LE, there were only three possible transitions as, by definition, recovery was not possible. For each study cohort, age-specific transition probabilities by sex and combined behaviour-related risk factors were estimated from multinomial logistic models with age in yearssex and socioeconomic position as covariates.
Obesity: A Cause or Consequence of Physical Inactivity?
Partial LE, healthy LE and chronic disease-free LE from ages 50 to 75 were then calculated based on these estimated transition probabilities using a stochastic micro-simulation approach.
Partial LE, healthy LE and chronic disease-free LE from age 50 to 75 were then calculated as the average from these trajectories for combined behaviour-related risk factors and sex. In addition, we repeated the analyses for each of the three behaviour-related risk factors separately. The relationship between physical inactivity in adolescence and obesity in adulthood has been weak or non-existent in the few published longitudinal studies 4 - 8. Very little is known about the role of physical activity on abdominal obesity.
A long-term follow up of Finnish men and women failed to show a relationship between adolescent activity and later obesity, but an increased risk of abdominal obesity, independent of current BMI, was documented for women who became inactive after adolescence 6. Because both physical activity 9 and body size 10 are influenced by genetic factors, it is possible that individuals not undertaking exercise and then gaining weight are genetically predisposed to do so.
Disentangling genetic effects from life-style has not been possible in previous studies. Once obesity is established, energy balance changes. Data on adults from the UK indicate that total energy expenditure TEE, assessed by the doubly-labelled water methodbasal metabolic rate BMRand AEE activity-induced energy expenditure are increased in obesity due to the larger body size According to these results, physical activity is not changed in obesity Other studies suggest the contrary: To better understand the relationships between obesity and energy balance, it is important to distinguish genetic effects from those that are acquired by weight gain.
In the present study, we assessed the role of persistent physical activity vs. Further, we chose from this sample a rare group of monozygotic MZ twin pairs discordant for obesity in young adulthood to determine the effects of acquired obesity on various components of energy expenditure.
Obesity: A Cause or Consequence of Physical Inactivity?
Subjects and Methods Study Populations The Twin Cohort Study Participants were recruited from a population-based, longitudinal study of five consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish twins the FinnTwin16 cohort All twins had been sent a questionnaire in adolescence at 16, 17, 18, and again as adults at mean 25 years of age. We included healthy twins who had responded to all four questionnaires individuals, including twin pairs. Five male and five female pairs measured BMI differences from 3.
All twins were healthy and weight-stable. Females were scheduled to attend during the follicular phase of their menstrual circle. All participants in the clinical study gave written informed consent.
At age 25, waist circumference was self-measured using a tape measure supplied with the questionnaire.
Abdominal obesity was defined by cut points of 88 cm for women and cm for men Actually, I would say that there is solid evidence to show that physical inactivity can contribute to weight gain. Regular exercise can help improve leptin and insulin sensitivity, increase lean muscle mass, improve appetite regulation, and elevate resting energy expenditure, among other things.
A case of reverse causality? As explained in the previous section, many lines of evidence indicate that physical inactivity can factor into weight gain. This may seem counterintuitive to many people, as the general perception among the public is that the reason some people choose to exercise more than others is simply that they possess more willpower and discipline; it has nothing to do with how much body fat they carry or how their body is functioning.
This simplistic belief has caused a lot of heartache for a lot of people, because it has led many who are overweight to think that the reason they find it so hard to get off the couch and into the gym is that they are lazy and have a weak mind.
This can then contribute to feelings of poor self-confidence and depression; particularly if they hear other — often leaner — people make mocking comments about the laziness of the obese. Also, a lot of people are ignorant of the fact that our ability and will to exercise, as well as the enjoyment we get out of physical training, are determined not only by psychological factors, but also by biological ones.
I strongly suspect that they key reason many obese people find exercise overly difficult and strenuous is that they are chronically inflamed, with compromised immunity and metabolism. Chronic fatigue, physical inactivity, and suboptimal physical performance: Is inflammation the culprit? Obesity is characterized by elevated levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines, a condition referred to as chronic low-grade inflammation.
This inflammatory state is generally considered to arise as a result of obesity, due to the fact that fat tissue releases many inflammatory mediators. Chronic low-grade inflammation is tightly linked with chronic fatigue and many other conditions that impair our physical performance and exercise tolerance 1213 ,