The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Physical Fitness in Children | Article | PTontheNet
connection between physical inactivity and decreased health, the effects of In this study, five physical fitness tests were administered to . exercise plays in academia may lead to a renewed emphasis on healthy lifestyles in schools globally. Physical activity can improve mental health by decreasing and preventing conditions advances of modern society have contributed to a sedentary lifestyle that has The relationship between physical activity and physical fitness is complex. Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services Nutrition for Everyone page. A balanced diet includes eating the right amount of calories and nutrients to maintain a healthy weight. Physical activity is any form of movement that uses energy. maintain the ability to live independently, and enhance fitness for sports.
Subjects were measured dressing only a t-shirt and shorts, with bare feet, and in the orthostatic position, following the recommendations described elsewhere [ 1516 ]. For each subject, the mean of three consecutive measurements was used for further statistical analysis.
Students were classified into three body mass categories i. Physical fitness tests Fitness measurements were realized one week after the anthropometric measurements. For cardiorespiratory fitness assessment students completed Leger 20 meter shuttle run test 20 m-SRT [ 19 ] during physical education class Figure 1. Students run back and forth between two lines 20 meters apart in the school gymnasium at a progressively increasing pace, set by an audiorecorded beep, until they were no longer able to maintain the pace, or they voluntarily stopped running.
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The 20 m-SRT score was equivalent to the number of laps recorded when a student failed to reach within two strides of one of the end lines two consecutive times, or when they voluntarily stopped running. Maximal effort was encouraged by verbal prompting from researcher and classmates.
All procedures for this tests are describe by Welk and Meredith [ 20 ]. Tests included curl ups, back arch and pushups. For curl ups and pushups tests the maximum number of repetitions 1 RM was collected. For back arch measurements, the distance cm between the chin and the floor was gathered.
Students completed muscular fitness tests during physical education class. There are several types of standards commonly used with fitness tests.
The data normality was confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Covariance analysis Ancova was used to verify possible differences between physical performance means at different nutritional status, adjusted by gender and age.
Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence ratios considering the low physical fitness as the dependent variable, as the outcomes present high prevalence values [ 22 ]. Results Means and standard deviations of study variables by nutritional status group and gender are presented in Table 2 and 3, respectively. Males and females obtain statistical differences in all measures Table 3. For all sample, BMI was significantly different between genders 0.
The prevalence of overweight for males was For obesity the prevalence was 5. Table 4 shows the correlation results between physical fitness tests with BMI. Significant low to moderate inverse correlations was found in 20m-SRT test, curl ups and pushups, in both genders, except in back arch test.
Table 5 presents the differences in physical fitness tests according to BMI, for both genders, considering age adjustment. Significant differences for 20m-SRT, curl ups and pushups were found. No significant differences were found in back arch. Table 6 presents the prevalence ratios for low physical fitness, according to BMI, for both genders.
Strong and significant trend toward the decrease in physical fitness tests 20 m-SRT, curl ups and pushups for overweight and obesity, for both genders was found. Males and females presented physical fitness low ratios 5.
The prevalence ratios are fold higher when compared with normal BMI. The prevalence ratios showed a similar behavior when the performance at the curl ups and pushups muscular fitness tests was analyzed. Discussion The literature is very clear about the lack of consensus to define and classify youth overweight and obesity. This has also reinforced that the extrapolation of obtained values in other studies for a specific population with its particular characteristics, may not be the best methodology.
So, to know the reality of each population further epidemiological studies are required. This community-based study permitted us to analyze various anthropometric measures for a large proportion of Castelo Branco adolescents. Few previous representative studies [ 23 ] have collected such broad data on nutritional status and physical fitness levels in this region.
This knowledge will promote the development of interventions to prevent obesity and other related diseases. We also believe that this study will develop policy interventions to meet the requests of young population. The present study provides data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents, and the association between nutritional status and physical fitne ss separately for males and females aged between 12 to 17 years old from Castelo Branco district.
Nutritional status is an important component of physical fitness of an individual and provides an well-being indicator [ 4 ], hence should be emphasized as a way of healthy lifestyle among adolescents in this area. The present findings reflect the existence of overweight and obesity in males Most studies prefer to use BMI as a nutritional status criterion measure, independently of its limitation to measure body fat [ 25 ].
The selection of BMI is related with the easy application, low costs and the possibility to collect a larger number of data. In studies that involve large populations, the literature also supports BMI to diagnose nutritional status [ 26 - 28 ]. The prevalence ratios confirmed the strong trend toward the decrease in physical fitness among individuals with overweight and obesity.
This result means that participants with reduced levels of physical fitness are overweight and obese. Nonetheless, this analysis identified a higher relevance of the nutritional status for low cardiorespiratory fitness levels, when compared to other physical capacities. It should be noted that the consequences of obesity is reported to be related to reduce health-related physical fitness [ 8 ].
However, other studies have shown that performances in back arch tests had an inverse association with BMI [ 29 ]. From our point of view the back arch test can also be used to evaluate the flexibility of the trunk. The association of the component flexibility with BMI is scarce, which is difficult to carry out a more detailed comparison of our results.
With regard to the physical fitness, males had higher performance in 20 m-SRT, curl ups and pushups tests. Females had higher performance in back arch test. Other research findings support the hypothesis that the most physically active preschool-age Fisher et al. The proficiency barrier is located between the fundamental and transitional motor skills periods. The transition between these two levels of motor competence is expected to occur between the early and middle childhood years.
Relationship between physical fitness and lifestyle behaviour in healthy young men.
Stodden and colleagues suggest that the relationship between motor competence and physical activity is dynamic and changes across time. The relationship between skills and physical activity is considered reciprocal. It is expected that as motor skills competence increases, physical activity participation also increases and that the increased participation feeds back into motor skills competence.
The reciprocal relationship between motor skills competence and physical activity is weak during the early childhood years ages because of a variety of factors, including environmental conditions, parental influences, and previous experience in physical education programs Stodden et al. Also, children at this age are less able to distinguish accurately between perceived physical competence and actual motor skills competence Harter and Pike, ; Goodway and Rudisill, ; Robinson and Goodway, ; Robinson,and thus motor skills are not expected to strongly influence physical activ- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: In older children, perceived competence is more closely related to actual motor skills competence.
Older, low-skilled children are aware of their skills level and are more likely to perceive physical activity as difficult and challenging. Older children who are not equipped with the necessary skills to engage in physical activity that requires high levels of motor skills competence may not want to display their low competence publicly. As children transition into adolescence and early adulthood, the relationship between motor skills competence and physical activity may strengthen Stodden et al.
Investigators report moderate correlations between motor skills competence and physical activity in middle school—age children Reed et al. Okely and colleagues found that motor skills competence was significantly associated with participation in organized physical activity i.
A strength of the model of Stodden and colleagues is the inclusion of factors related to psychosocial health and development that may influence the relationship between motor skills competence and physical activity, contributing to the development and maintenance of obesity.
Other studies have found that perceived competence plays a role in engagement in physical activity Ferrer-Caja and Weiss, ; Sollerhed et al. Motor skills competence is an important factor; however, it is only one of many factors that contribute to physical activity. A possible explanation for these findings is that since girls tend to be less active than boys, it may be more difficult to detect differences in physical activity levels between high- and low-skilled girls.
It is also possible that out-of-school opportunities for physical activity are more likely to meet the interests of boys, which may at least partially explain sex differences in physical activity levels Le Masurier et al. Previous research suggests that in general boys are more motor competent than girls Graf et al. One component of motor competence is the performance of gross motor skills, which are typically classified into object control and Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Consistent evidence suggests that boys are more competent in object control skills, while girls are more competent in locomotor skills McKenzie et al.
In light of these sex differences, it is important to examine the relationships of object control and locomotor skills with physical activity separately for boys and girls. For boys, object control skills are more related to physical activity than are locomotor skills Hume et al. Three studies report a significant relationship between balance and physical activity for girls but not boys Reed et al.
The relationship between motor competence and physical activity clearly is complex. It is quite likely that the relationship is dynamic and that motor competence increases the likelihood of participating in physical activity while at the same time engaging in physical activity provides opportunities to develop motor competence Stodden et al.
Despite some uncertainty, the literature does reinforce the important role of physical education in providing developmentally appropriate movement opportunities in the school environment.
These opportunities are the only means of engaging a large population of children and youth and providing them with the tools and opportunities that foster health, development, and future physical activity. Stature Regular physical activity has no established effect on linear growth rate or ultimate height Malina, Although some studies suggest small differences, factors other than physical activity, especially maturity, often are not well controlled.
It is important to note that regular physical activity does not have a negative effect on stature, as has sometimes been suggested. Differences in height among children and adolescents participating in various sports are more likely due to the requirements of the sport, selection criteria, and interindividual variation in biological maturity than the effects of participation per se Malina et al.
Similarly, physique, as represented in somatotypes, does not appear to be significantly affected by physical activity during growth Malina et al. In contrast, components of weight can be influenced by regular physical activity, especially when the mode and intensity of the activity are tailored to the desired outcome. Much of the available data in children and adolescents is based on BMI, a surrogate for composition, and indirect methods based on the two-compartment model of body composition in which body weight is divided into its fat-free and fat components Going et al.
While studies generally support that physical activity is associated with greater fat-free mass and lower body fat, distinguishing the effects of physical activity on fat-free mass from expected changes associated with growth and maturation is difficult, especially during adolescence, when both sexes have significant growth in fat-free mass. The application of methods based on the two-compartment model is fraught with errors, especially when the goal is to detect changes in fat-free mass, and no information is available from these methods regarding changes in the major tissue components of fat-free mass—muscle and skeletal tissue.
Muscle Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue mass in the body. It is the main energy-consuming tissue and provides the propulsive force for movement.
Postnatal muscle growth is explained largely by increases in cell size hypertrophy driving an increase in overall muscle mass. The increase in muscle mass with age is fairly linear from young childhood until puberty, with boys having a small but consistent advantage Malina, The sex difference becomes magnified during and after puberty, driven primarily by gender-related differences in sex steroids.
Muscle, as a percentage of body mass, increases from about 42 percent to 54 percent in boys between ages 5 and 11, whereas in girls it increases from about 40 percent to 45 percent between ages 5 and 13 and thereafter declines Malina et al. It should be noted that absolute mass does not decline; rather, the relative decline reflects the increase in the percentage of weight that is fat in girls. At least part of the sex difference is due to differences in muscle development for different body regions Tanner et al.
The growth rate of arm muscle tissue during adolescence in males is approximately twice that in females, whereas the sex difference in the growth of muscle tissue in the leg is much smaller. The sex difference that develops during puberty persists into adulthood and is more apparent for the musculature of the upper extremities. Muscle strength develops in proportion to the cross-sectional area of muscle, and growth curves for strength are essentially the same as those for muscle Malina and Roche, Thus the sex difference in muscle strength is explained largely by differences in skeletal muscle mass rather than muscle quality or composition.
Aerobic endurance exercise has little effect on enhancing muscle mass but does result in significant improvement in oxygen extraction and aerobic metabolism Fournier et al. In contrast, numerous studies have shown that high-intensity resistance exercise induces muscle hypertrophy, with associated increases in muscle strength.
Nutrition and Physical Activity
In children and adolescents, strength training can increase muscle strength, power, and endurance. Multiple types of resistance training modalities have proven effective and safe Bernhardt et al.
These adaptations are due to muscle fiber hypertrophy and neural adaptations, with muscle hypertrophy playing a more important role in adolescents, especially in males. Prior to puberty, before the increase in anabolic sex steroid concentrations, neural adaptations explain much of the improvement in muscle function with exercise in both boys and girls. Skeleton The skeleton is the permanent supportive framework of the body.
It provides protection for vital organs and is the main mineral reservoir. Bone tissue constitutes most of the skeleton, accounting for percent of body weight across the life span Trotter and Peterson, ; Trotter and Hixon, Skeletal strength, which dictates fracture risk, is determined by both the material and structural properties of bone, both of which are dependent on mineral accrual. The relative mineral content of bone does not differ much among infants, children, adolescents, and adults, making up percent of the dry, fat-free weight of the skeleton Malina, As a fraction of weight, bone mineral the ash weight of bone represents about 2 percent of body weight in infants and about percent of body weight in adults Malina, Bone mineral content increases fairly linearly with age, with no sex difference during childhood.
Girls have, on average, a slightly greater bone mineral content than boys in early adolescence, reflecting their earlier adolescent growth spurt. The increase in total body bone mineral is explained by both increases in skeletal length and width and a small increase in bone mineral density Malina et al. Many studies have shown a positive effect of physical activity on intermediate markers of bone health, such as bone mineral content and density.
Exercise interventions support the findings from observational studies showing beneficial effects on bone mineral content and density in exercise participants versus controls Petit et al. The relationship between greater bone mineral density and bone strength is unclear, as bone strength cannot be measured directly in humans. Thus, whether the effects of physical activity on bone mineral density translate into similar benefits for fracture risk is uncertain Karlsson, Animal studies have shown that loading causes small changes in bone mineral content and bone mineral density that result in large increases in bone strength, supporting the notion that physical activity probably affects the skeleton in a way that results in important gains in bone strength Umemura et al.
The relatively recent application of peripheral quantitative computed tomography for estimating bone strength in youth has also provided some results suggesting an increase in bone strength with greater than usual physical activity Sardinha et al.
The intensity of exercise appears to be a key determinant of the osteogenic response Turner and Robling, Bone tissue, like other tissues, accommodates to usual daily activities. Far fewer randomized controlled trials RCTs examining this relationship have been conducted in children than in adults, and there is little evidence on dose response to show how the type of exercise interacts with frequency, intensity, and duration.
Taken together, however, the available evidence supports beneficial effects of physical activity in promoting bone development Bailey et al. Physical activity may reduce osteoporosis-related fracture risk by increasing bone mineral accrual during development; by enhancing bone strength; and by reducing the risk of falls by improving muscle strength, flexibility, coordination, and balance Bloomfield et al.
Early puberty is a key developmental period. Approximately 26 percent of the mineral content in the adult skeleton is accrued during the 2 years around the time of peak height velocity Bailey et al. This amount of mineral accrual represents approximately the same amount of bone mineral Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The increase in mineral contributes to increased bone strength.
Mineral is accrued on the periosteal surface of bone, such that the bone grows wider. Increased bone width, independent of the increased mineral mass, also contributes to greater bone strength. Indeed, an increase of as little as 1 mm in the outer surface of bone increases strength substantially.
Adding bone to the endosteal surface also increases strength Parfitt, ; Wang et al. Increases in testosterone may be a greater stimulus of periosteal expansion than estrogen since testosterone contributes to wider and stronger bones in males compared with females. RCTs on this issue are few, although the available data are promising McKay et al.
Thus, impact exercise begun in childhood may result in lasting structural changes that may contribute to increased bone strength and decreased fracture risk later in life Turner and Robling, ; Ferrari et al. Adipocytes are distributed throughout the body in various organs and tissues, although they are largely clustered anatomically in structures called fat depots, which include a large number of adipocytes held together by a scaffold-like structure of collagen and other structural molecules.