Hazaras - Wikipedia
represents racial conflict between the Pashtuns and Hazaras, two different races and ethnics in Afghanistan. Pashtun as the majority race and ethnic in Afghanistan is Sunni. Moslem .. Therefore, Amir has to read a book or poem to Hassan. Pashtun nomads seized Hazara-held pastures and farmland at the southern foot singing revolutionary songs whose villains were Pashtuns rather than Soviets. between Hazaras and Pashtuns, rather than the differences. Within Afghan culture, Hazaras are famous for their music and poetry and the As the Pashtun Rahman started to extend his influence from Kabul by force to other Some of the other parties joined the fighting, intensifying the conflict and at.
In business, the customer comes first. The sons of wolves will be wolves. Children will be like their parents. Two people are afraid of an empty rifle: A person being threatened feels afraid.
But the person doing the threatening is also afraid if he knows he can't follow through on the threat.
Muslims celebrate their religious holidays by going to the mosque for group prayers. Then they return home to large meals with family and visiting relatives. Eid al-Fitr is a three-day celebration that comes after a month of fasting called Ramadan. Eid al-Adha commemorates the willingness of Abraham to obey God's command and sacrifice his son, Isaac.
People making a pilgrimage religious journey are expected to sacrifice a goat or sheep and offer the meat to the poor.
Special celebrations involving passages to a new stage of life include circumcision for young boys, weddings, and funerals.
Once girls reach puberty, they are required to cover their hair with scarves and to spend more of their time indoors. Marriages are arranged by the families of the bride and groom. When a daughter is married, she moves in with her husband's family.
Persecution of Hazara people - Wikipedia
They prepare special food for their guests, who are honored with the best seats at mealtime. Most Hazaras eat with their hands, rarely using utensils such as forks and knives. However, their living conditions vary depending on their location. Conditions are more harsh for those living in cold climates, where shelter is a greater concern, travel is difficult, and agriculture is poor. Newborn babies are usually named by the older people of the household.
Grandparents are actively involved in raising their grandchildren. After the death of the grandparents, especially the grandfather, the sons usually begin living in separate households of their own. Men wear turbans, vests, overcoats, and sweaters over their perahan-u-tunbans. Their clothing is usually made from wool or cotton. Unlike the men, who wear plain-colored clothes, the women usually wear clothes with bright colors and designs. Women usually wear lighter-weight clothes because they remain indoors more of the time.
Hazaras do not own large amounts of clothing. They use plenty of oil when cooking.
Usually a meal consists of one type of food, rather than a wide selection. However, a variety of foods may be served at meals when guests are present, or may be served in wealthier Hazara households. The traditional system provides religious instruction and informal home education in practical tasks, according to whether the student is a girl or a boy.
The Hazaras have typically voiced their dissent to the policies of overt discrimination against them since the s through a unified opposition movement; the main Hazara party, Hizb-e Wahdat Party of Unitywas established in Inafter the Mujahidin took power, fighting between the various groups broke out.
Amnesty International subsequently reported the killing of many unarmed civilians and the rape of many Hazara women. In Februaryhundreds of Hazara residents in the Afshar district of West Kabul were massacred by government forces under the direction of Rabbani and Massoud, joined by Ittehad-i-Islami.Who are Afghanistan's Hazara?
The fighting saw the utter devastation of large areas of Kabul, particularly those inhabited by Hazaras. BetweenAbdul Ali Mazari became the first political leader to speak out at the international level for, and on behalf of Hazaras, putting their case to the UN and the international community.
Mazari signed an agreement with the Taliban leadership in but was brutally murdered by them in In the years that followed, Hazaras faced particularly severe repression and persecution, including a series of mass killings in northern Afghanistan, where thousands of Hazaras lost their lives or were forced to flee their homes.
Consequently, Hazaras formed part of the Northern Alliance forces that opposed the Taliban and took power after the Taliban fell in A key moment in recent Hazara history is the destruction of the Bamyan Buddhas by the Taliban in The giant Buddha statues had long been central to the identity of the Hazara community.
Although not built by the Hazaras themselves, who only came to have an ethnolinguistic identity based in the region some centuries later, they have their own myths associated with the statues, unrelated to Buddhism. In Hazara folklore, the statues are of a star-crossed couple Salsal and Shahmama, whose doomed love ends tragically in both their deaths.
The two remain forever separated, petrified in stone, looking across the Bamyan valley. However, the statues, long celebrated internationally, achieved less welcome attention in when the Taliban dynamited them, leaving behind little more than empty voids.
Ethnic groups in Afghanistan
The destruction was, in fact, part of a larger campaign by the Taliban to suppress the rights and identity of Hazaras. International debate continues to rage regarding whether the statues should be reconstructed or not.
However, the discussions often disregard the fact that the sculptures are an integral part of Hazara culture and do not always consider the need to involve local communities in any future decisions concerning them. Since the overthrow of the Taliban inthe situation of Hazaras in Afghanistan has improved considerably. Hazaras are one of the national ethnic minorities recognized in the new Afghan Constitution and have been given full right to Afghan citizenship.
But in the most recent parliamentary election Hazaras who make up around 9 per cent of the population gained 25 per cent of seats. However, Hazaras still face persistent discrimination in many areas of the country. Current issues A key issue for the Hazara community is the general climate of impunity, whereby those who committed atrocities — both past and present — to evade justice.
Hazaras also remain concerned about the resurgence of the Taliban, who they feel pose a direct threat to their community.
Persecution of Hazara people
There have also been increasing ethnic tensions and incidents of violent clashes between Hazaras and nomadic Kuchis over access to land in recent years.
Due to the severity of their persecution under the Taliban, Hazara leaders have insisted, along with leaders of other minority groups, to be included in all negotiations with the Taliban. With the increasing presence of foreign Islamist groups such as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria ISISactive in the country for a number of years, attacks against religious minorities have been on the increase. Suicide bombings targeting Hazara public events have taken place with increasing regularity, most of which have been claimed by groups stating allegiance with ISIS.
These include, in Julythe killing of 85 people at a peaceful protest comprised of mostly Hazaras. Other attacks include a December bombing that left at least 41 dead and another 80 injured in a Hazara neighbourhood of western Kabul and an assault in March that resulted in the deaths of at least nine people.
However, the Taliban too is thought to be responsible for the increasing kidnappings of Hazaras, particularly on remote highways, with some of the victims killed while others have been held for ransom.
Some minority women, such as the Hazara women, have traditionally enjoyed more freedom in their society than other ethnic groups. In the post-Taliban period, they have benefited considerably from political and educational reforms. Poverty and insecurity drive many Hazaras to migrate to cities such as Kabul. However, the journey to Kabul from Hazarajat in the centre of the country has proven dangerous.