flirt - Dictionary Definition : pugliablog.info
"Source" means a location at which other users can find a copy of this work. .. Adj. identical; self, ilk; the same &c n.. selfsame, one and the same, homoousian† . jungle; involution, raveling, entanglement; coil &c (convolution) ; chuck, toss, jerk, heave, shy, hurl; flirt, fillip. dart, lance, tilt; ejaculate. This verb form is the earliest meaning of coil, from the Middle French coillir, "to gather," with the Latin root colligere, "to gather together." Start learning this word. English vocabulary word lists and various games, puzzles and quizzes to help you Core Vocabulary Compiled from 3 Small ESL Dictionaries ( Words) .. cohesion; coil; coin; coincide; coincidence; coincidental; coincidentally; Coke flip; flip-flop; flip out; flippant; flipper; flip side; flirt; flirtation; flirtatious; flit; float .
It is presumed that they, as well as novices in composition, will find the present work useful in overcoming difficulties of this sort. As to the method of using it: Whenever a doubt arises in regard to the fitness of any word, and a better one is not readily suggested, let the writer turn to this word in its alphabetical place.
Under it will be found the words and phrases, or some clew to the words and phrases, which, in any connection, have the same meaning as itself, or a meaning very nearly the same. That one of them, which comes nearest to expressing the exact shade of thought in the writer's mind, will be likely to arrest the attention and determine the choice. In most cases, all the words that belong to any group will be found in that group. But in some instances, as when the same word falls into two or more groups that are near to each other, or when there are so many synonymes for a word that a repetition of every one of them under each in its alphabetical place would seem to be too formal and prolix, the inquirer is referred to some prominent word among them for a view of the whole.
This example is given because it is the most marked one in our language of a multiplicity of terms for the same idea. Many nouns ending in ness, and adverbs ending in ly, have been omitted in their alphabetical places, for the reason that their synonymes are sufficiently indicated by the corresponding adjectives.
The aim has been to present at a single glance the words or modes of speech which denote the same object, or which express the same general idea, with only slight shades of difference. There has been no attempt at elaborate discussion of the nice distinctions that obtain between words apparently synonymous; but hints of such distinctions have been given whenever it was practicable to give them briefly in a parenthetical remark. In preparing this Dictionary, free use has been made of the following works: It contains much, however, that has been gathered from a wide field of miscellaneous reading during a long series of years.
The author is under special obligations to his friends Mr. Behind, back of, put down, put out of countenance, take in the rear of. Aft, behind, astern, ear. Confusion, shame, Abalienate, v. Lessen, diminish, dedeliver over. Remit, allow, bate, rebate, deduct. Moderate, assuage, mitigate, Abandon, v. Leave, relinquish, soothe, soften, qualify, alleviate, molquit, forsake, desert, evacuate, drop, lify, allay, appease, pacify, compose, abjure, forswear, give over, cast off, tranquillize, temper, attemper, quiet, retire from, withdraw from.
Surrender, cede, yield, resign, 4. Remove, suppress, terforego, renounce, waive, vacate, ABDI- minate, put an end to. CATE, deliver up, give up, part with, Abate, v. Decrease, diminish, let go, lay down.
Be defeated, frustrated, discarded, given up, given over, cast or overthrown. Depraved, corrupted, corrupt, crease, lessening, mitigation, assuageprofligate, vicious, sinful, wicked, dis- ment, decrement, extenuation, remissolute, reprobate, graceless, shameless, sion.
Discount, allowance, rebate, dedemoralized, lost to shame, dead to duction, reduction, drawback. Monastery, convent, cloister, Abandonment, ta. Abandoning, re- priory, nunnery. Shorten by cutting 2. Shortening by cutting Abase, v. Degrade, humble, disgrace, dis- Abdicate, va. Resign an o ce or dighonor, humiliate, debase, bring low, nitysurrender a rightcede, forego, take down. Depression, detru- vacate, give up, part with, lay down, sion, reduction, lowering, fall, deteriora- renounce all claim to.
Resign, relinquish office eracy, vitiation, perversion, deprava- especially that of a kingvacate the tion. Abjectness, abjection, vileness, Abdication, n.
Abdicating, resignation, baseness, contemptibleness, despicable- surrender, renunciation, abandonment. Humiliation, condescension, sub- Abdominal, a. Large-bellied, greathumility, meekness, humbleness, lowli- bellied, big-bellied, pot-bellied, tunness, self-abasement.
Shame, mortify, confuse, Abduce, v. Withdraw, draw confound, disconcert, discompose, DIS- away, pull back. Kidnap, carry off, run Ability, n. Power to execute amn away with, run off with. Withdrawing, with- efficiency, efficacy, strength, energy, drawal, withdrawment, drawing away.
Siskin Carduelis qpi- aptness, knack, expertness, facility, nus. Qualification, competency, suffiAberrant, a. Irregular, abnormal, unnatural, ment, calibre, forte, turn. Base, vile, mean, low, desunconformable, exceptional, strange, picable, contemptible, beggarly, paltry, anomalistic, eccentric, monstrous, pre- dirty, squalid, grovelling, pitiful, ignoternatural.
Deviation, diver- slavish, menial, sneaking, sordid, gence, wandering, rambling, departure. Irregularity, eccentricity, singu- low-minded, base-minded, earth-born, larity, peculiarity, strangeness, uncon- earth-bred. Illusion, delusion, hallucination, 2.
Meanness, servility, Abet, v. Aid, assist, help, support, vileness, baseness, abasement, abjecsuccor, second, sustain, uphold. Renunciation upon support to. Favor, encourage, sanction, coun- donment, abnegation. Instigate to commit a tion, repeal, reversal, recall. Renounce upon oathAbettor, n. Assistant, helper, aider, relinquish, forego, reject, forswear, coadjutor, co-operator, ally, auxiliary. Advocate, adviser, promoter, in- off.
Retract, revoke, recant, recall, 3. Confederate, accomplice, accesso- withdraw, disavow, take back. Expectation, terous, apt, quick, skilful, efficient, prospect, expectancy, waiting, anticipa- proficient, good, versed, practical, AU tion, calculation, contemplation. Suspense, reservation, intermis- 2. Capable, gifted, powerful, strong, Abhor, v. Hate, abominate, detest, mighty, highly endowed. Abomination, horror, Abntlu ion, n.
Washing especially of detestation, hatred, loathing, disgust, the body, as a religious ritelavation, antipathy, aversion. Hating, detesting, Abnegate, v. Odious, offensive, shocking, repug- Abnegation, a.
Denial, renunciation, nant, hateful, loathsome. Stay, sojourn, tarry, surrender. Irregular, anomalous, ters, pitch one's tent. Dwell, reside, live, inhabit, settle, gular, peculiar, unconformable, excepplant one's self, get a footing, get a tional, heteroclite, aberrant, eccentric, foothold. Remain, continue, persist, perse- ural. Irregularity, uncolnfast, be constant. Await, attend, wait for, Aboard, ad. On board, in the ship, in be in readiness for, be in store for. Endure, tolerate, bear, brook, suf- Abode, n.
Habitation, dwelling, lodgfer, bear with, put up with. Act up to, conform to, per- quarters, head-quarters, place of resisist in. Permanent, lasting, dura- 2. Abrogate, annul, dis- Above, prep.
Over, exceeding, more than, greatnullify, quash, vacate, invalidate, set er than. Destroy, overthrow, subvert, oblit- 4. Too high for, too proud for. Before, in a former part. Of a higher rank or order. Chiefly, in the first place, vocation, cancelling, repeal, rescission. Destruction, overthrow, subver- Above-board, ad. Hateful, odious, Abrade, v. ScRAPE, wear away, detestable, horrid, horrible, execrable, wear off, rub off. Loathsome, offensive, obnoxious, wearing away, wearing off, rubbing foul, nauseous, nauseating, disgusting, off.
Alongside, side by ing. Vile, wretched, sorry, scurvy, 2. Against, off, on a line with, opposhabby, bad. Abhor, detest, exe- Abridge, v. Shorten by comnprescrate, hate, loathe, nauseate, shrink sionepitomize, condense, compress, from, recoil from, shudder at, view make an abstract of.
Diminish, reduce, contract, curAbomination, in. Contamination, pollution, defile- Abridger, n. Epitomizer, writer of an ment, taint, uncleanness, impurity, epitome. Primitive, primeval, - 2. Compendium, compend, epitome, primordial, pristine, primary, prime, summary, abstract, digest, synopsis, original, first, native, indigenous, au- syllabus, breviary, brief, conspectus, tochthonal.
Failure, disappointment, want of Abroach, ad. Broached, tapped, on success, vain effort or attempt. Unavailing, vain, fruitless, use- 2. Forth, out of the house, out of less, bootless, ineffectual, ineffective, doors, in the open air.
Extensively, before the public. Without as opposed to within. Annul, disannul, reAbound, v. Teem, swarm, super- peal, revoke, rescind, cancel, abolish, abound, swell, flow, increase, multiply, nullify, quash, vacate, invalidate, overbe in great plenty, be numerous, be rule, set aside, do away, make void.
Exuberate, luxuriate, revel, wan- scinding, abolition, annulment, annulton, be well furnished, be well supplied. Around, round, encir- Abrupt, a.
Broken, cragged, craggy, cling, surrounding. Near, near to, not far from. Concerning; touching, respecting, 3. Sudden, -unexpected, unanticirelating to, relative to, with respect to, pated, precipitate, hasty, unseasonable, with reference to, in regard to, with ill-timed, unlooked for.
Short, blunt, unceremonious, curt. Inelegant as stylestiff, cramped, About, ad. Around, here and there. Nearly, near, approximately, not Abscess, s. Sore, ulcer, fester, impostfar from.
Ready, in a state of readiness, on Abscond, v. Withdraw, flee, fly, the point. Abstaining, refrainaway, run away, run off, sneak ofilf, ing. Hide, secrete one's self. Non-attendance, non- Abstinent, a. Inattention, abstraction, preoccu- Abstract, v. Separate, disunite, pation, distraction, revery, musing, disjoin, dissociate, isolate, detach, disbrown study, absence of mind. Want, deficiency, lack, default. Take, seize, appropriate, steal, 4.
Away, gone, not present. Abridge, abbreviate, epitomize, f. Abstracted, preoccupied, inatten- make an abstract of. Separate, isolated, not absent-minded, in a brown study. Occult, recondite, subtile, refined, SENT. Absent one's self, Be not present, Abstract, a9. Abridgment, epitome, stay away. Independent, unre- pendium, synopsis, syllabus, outline, stricted, unqualified, unlimited, uncon- digest, brief, breviary, sum and subditional, unconditioned, complete, per- stance, concise statement.
Despotic, arbitrary, tyrannical, stract, abstruse. Inattentive, preoccupied, lost, thoritative, autocratic, dictatorial, irre- dreaming, musing, absent, absentsponsible. Positive, actual, real, veritable, Abstraction, n.
Separation, discondeterminate, decided, genuine, cate- nection, disjunction, isolation. Preoccupation, inattention, revAbsolutely, ad. Completely, un- ery, musing, muse, absence, absence of conditionally, without limit.
Truly, actually, positively, indeed, 3. Taking, abduction, seizure, approreally, in fact, in reality, in truth. Acquittal, remission, difficult, dark, enigmatical, mysterious, discharge, release, liberation, deliver- mystic, mystical, high, abstract, abance, clearance, forgiveness, pardon, stracted, subtile, refined.
Unreasonable, irrational, Absolutism, n. Absoluteness, arbitra- foolish, nonsensical, ridiculous, inconriness, despotism, tyranny, autocracy. Acquit, clear, release, -Absurdity, n. Unreasonableness, irliberate, free, discharge, loose, deliver, rationality, foolishness, folly, foolery, exculpate, exonerate, excuse, forgive, extravagance, absurdness. Consume, exhaust, destroy, en- Absurd story, Cock-and-bull-story, gorge, devour, engulf, swallow up.
Engross, engage, immerse, occupy, son. Flow, overflow, exuAbsorbent, a. Engrossment, occupation, engage- ampleness, wealth, affluence, store, ment, immersion. Refrain, forbear, desist, Abundant, a. Abstinent by habitbountiful, lavish, rich, teeming, thick.
Misuse, misemploy, sparing in diet. Temperance as profane, make an ill use of. Maltreat, harm, injure, hurt, illAbstergent, a. Cleansing, puri- treat, ill-use. Assisting, aiding, abetblacken, disparage, berate, rate, up- ting, helping, accessory. Violate, outrage, ravish, deflour. Addition, increase, Abuse, n. Misapplication, misuse, enlargement, augmentation, extension. Coming into power as a new dytion, desecration, perversion, ill-use.
Maltreatment, outrage, ill-treat- Accessory, a. Vituperation, railing, reviling, 2. Accomp'animent, attendant, concontumely, obloquy, opprobrium, in- comitant. Grammar, rudiments or vective, rude reproach. Reproachful, opprobrious, Accident, c. Abut against, Meet end to end or sidle 2. Property, quality, modification, Abut upon, to sidebe contiguous. Gulf, gorge, great depth, Accidental, a. Casual, fortuitous, bottomless gulf or pit.
Incidental, adventitious, non-esAcademical, ] ary, lettered. School, seminary, insti- tuity. Consent, agree, assent, Acclaim, n. Applause, plaudit, Accelerate, v. Acclimatize, inure or push on, press on, urge on. Hastening, increase Acclimatize, v. Ascent, slope upwardsAccent, cc. Intonation, cadence, tone, rising ground. Stress occ a certain syllable.
Accentuate, lay stress the wants of, minister to the convenupon, pronounce with accent. Fit, suit, adapt, make conform, Accentuate, v. Mark with accent, make conformable.
Reconcile, adjust, settle, compose. Accent, lay stress upon, pronounce Accommodate with, Furnish, supply, with accent. Take what is offeredAccommodation, n. Admit, assent to, agree to, accede ply of wants, provision of convento, acquiesce in. Agreement, adaptation, fitness, Acceptable, a. Welcome, pleasing, suitableness, conformity. Accepting, taking, Accompaniment, n. Accepted bill of exchange. Attend, escort, conAcceptation, n.
Meaning, signification, voy, follow, wait on, be associated with, significance, sense, import. Avenue, approach, pas- with, go hand in hand with. Explain, give a reason, show the consummate, compass, carry, carry in reason, render a reason, assign the to effect, carry through, carry out, get cause, make explanation.
Accountableness, out, turn off. Finish, end, conclude, terminate. Fulfil, realize, effectuate, bring to Accountable, a. Book-keeper, expert consummate, ripe, thorough-bred, in accounts. Polished, refined, polite, elegant, Accoutrements, n. Credit, give trust or conconsummation, fulfilment. Acquirement, attainment, profi- ceive as an envoy, receive as commisciency, stock of knowledge, mental re- sioned, empowered, or authorized.
Growth by accessiou Accord, v. Grant, concede, vouch- of parts. Gradual accumulation of agree, tally, quadrate, be in unison, be soil, as at the mouth of a river. Result, proceed, come, Accord, o. Accord, concord, agree- added, be derived, be gained, be got, ment, concurrence, concordance, con- come in. Pile, amass, agAccordant, a. Agreeable, agreeing, gregate, collect, collect together, gather suitable, consonant, congruous, sym- up, pile up, heap up, bring together, phonious. Consequently, as a natural conse- lay in, set by.
Increase, grow, be or the occasion. According to, By, in accordance with, Accumulation, n. Collection, pile, heap, conformably to, agreeably to. Address, salute, greet, Accuracy, n. Exact, correct, precise, Accoucheur, n. Record, register, inven- Accurateness, a. Bill, charge, registry of debt and unholy. Detestable, execrable, hateful, 3. Reckoning, computation, calcula- abominable, odious, horrid, horrible, tion, enumeration, tale, count. Description, statement, narration, Accusation, n.
Crimination, impeachrecital, rehearsal, relation, narrative, ment, arraignment, indictment, charge. Charge, impeach, arraign, sentation, portrayal, detail, word, ti- indict, criminate, inculpate, incrimidings, report, nate, tax, inform against, call to ac5. Consideration, regard, motive, rea- count, take to task. Habituate, inure, use, tion, note. Esteem, regard, deem, Accustomed, a. Usual,habitual, wontthink, hold, consider, view, reckon, rate, ed, customary, familiar, common, freestimate, look upon.
Render an account, Ace, is. Single point in cards or in answer in judgment. Particle, atom, jot, iota, bit, tittle, Acquaintance, n. Familiarity, fawhit, grain, scrap, mite, corpuscle, miliar knowledge. Friend with whom one is not intiAcephalous, a. Roughness, astrin- Acquainted with, 1. A friend of without being intimate 2. Acrimony, severity, harshness, with. Yield, comply, subrancor, crabbedness, churlishness, mo- mit, bow, rest, resign one's self, be roseness, sullenness, ill temper, bad reconciled, be resigned, be satisfied, blood.
Assent, consent, agree, accede, Ache, n. Aching, pain, continued pain. Be in pain, feel or suffer in, go with the stream, go with the pain.
Be painful, give pain. Accomplish, perform, mission, resignation. Assent, consent, agreement, conconsummate, effect, realize, bring currence. Complying, yielding, carry out, work out, bring to a close, submitting. Gain, obtain, achieve, 2. Obtain, acquire, procure, gain, attain, procure, earn, win, get, secure, win, get. Performance, ac- of, get into one's hands. Master, learn thoroughly, make realization, consummation.
Exploit, feat, deed, work. Escutcheon, shield, ensign armo- ing, gaining, mastery. Accomplisllnent, attainment, acAching, n. Pain, ache, continued pain. Absence of color, Acquisitive, a. Acquiring, disposed to want of color. Love of acquiring, Acicular, a. Aciculate, aciform, desire to acquire. Discharge from an accuAciculate, a. Sour, tart, sharp, pricked. Sourness, tartness, acidness, quit, set free.
Acquit one's self Act, behave, conAcidness, n. Sourish, somewhat acid, one's self. Discharge, release, deAciform, a. Recognize, take Acquittance, n.
Receipt, receipt in full. Admit, grant, concede, allow, ac- Acrid, a. Sharp, biting, pungent, cept, indorse, subscribe to, agree to. Express gratitude for, give thanks 2. Own or admit the validity of. Sharpness, pungency, Acknowledgment, ai.
Admission, avowal, concession, Acrimonious, a. Corrosive, allowance, acceptance, indorsement. Expression of thanks or gratitude. Severe, harsh, hard, acrid, sarcasAcme, is. Summit, top, apex, zenith, tic, bitter, virulent, malignant, censopinnacle, utmost height, highest point, rious, crabbed, snarling, snappish, tesculminating point, climax.
Inform, apprise, tell, notify, make ness, causticity. Severity, harshness, sourness, tartcommunicate to, signify to, give notice ness, asperity, virulence, bitterness, to, send word to, write word to. Player, performer, comedian, traAcroamatical, j secret, private, acro- gedian, stage-player.
Real, veritable, true, subAcroatic, a. Athwart, over, from one aginary, not supposed or fancied, not side of to the other. Present, now existing, now in in action. Behave, conduct one's self, demean Actually, ad. Really, truly, absolutely, one's self, acquit one's self. Do, perform, execute, car- Actuate, v. Induce, impel, move, ry into execution. Personate, play, simulate, enact, upon, prevail upon, work upon.
Influence, effect, have inAct, n. Deed viewed as a single exer- fluence upon. Abide by, conform to, perment, turn. Statute, enactmefit, ordinance, Acumen, n. Acuteness, shrewdness, edict, decree, law, bill. Fact, reality, actuality, real exist- nuity, perspicacity, discernment, peneence. Deed, performance, AC- Acuminate, a. Acuminated, j pointed, cuspidate, 2. Personation, representation, sim- cuspidated. Keen, shrewd, discerning, know2.
Deed viewed as requiring a con- ing, quick, sharp, smart, bright, sage, tisnued exertion of powerperformance, sapient, sagacious, intelligent, astute, exploit, achievement, -procedure, pro- ingenious, subtle, penetrating, piercceeding, acting, turn, ACT.
Severe, violent, intense, poignant, 4. Battle, engagement, conflict,'con- exquisite, pungent. Acumen, shrewdness, penetration, 6. Subject, fable, plot, series of sagacity, sagaciousness, astuteness, events. Suit, process, case, prose- cernment, ingenuity, mother-wit, quick cution.
Severity, intensity, poignancy, vioActive, a. Practical, operative, liv- lence. Proverb, saying, saw, dictum, 2. Busy, diligent, assiduous, indus- aphorism, apothegm, maxim, by-word, trious, indefatigable, unremitting, la- sententious precept.
Diamond, crystallized hard at work, diligently employed, carbon. Adamantine, hard as 3. Alert, nimble, agile, supple, brisk, adamant, very hard. Adamantean, very hard, hard as ited. Enterprising, energetic, strong, Adam's-needle, sn. Yucca, bear-grass, efficient, in earnest.
Drastic as medkcisepowerful, Adapt, v. Alertness, agility, nimbleness, Adaptability, n. Intensity, energy, strength, force, appropriateness, aptness, adaptability, power, vigor.
Join, subjoin, annex, affix, Adherent, a. Adhering, sticking, clingappend, superadd, tag, tack.
Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases - Wikisource, the free online library
Sum, sum up, cast up, add to- Adherent, a. Increase, augment, make dependant, vassal. Addition, appendix, clinging, tendency to adhere. Sticking, clinging, Addict, v. Accustom commonly in a tending to adhere. Sticky, tenacious, tough, viscous, apply habitutallygive, give up.
Accession, increase, augmentation, well, God bless you. Appendage, adjunct, appendix, taking. Fat, fatty, unctuous, oily, Additional, a. Superadded, adsciti- sebaceous, greasy. Nearness, vicinity, extra, more. Adjacency, I vicinage, neighborhood, Additive, a.
Putrid, corrupt, spoiled Adjacent, a. Adjoining, conterminous, as eggs. Barren, unfruitful, fruitless, abor- contiguous, in proximity. Be contiguous to, lie near Addle-headed, a. Foolish, stupid, dull, to, lie close to, border upon, be adjacent doltish, brainless, shallow, soft, sappy, to. Postpone, defer, dewitted, thick-skulled, addle-pated. Appeal, invocation, Adjournment, n. Postponement, petition, entreaty, request, imploration, delay, putting off.
Discourse, speech, oration, ha- Adjudge, v. Determline, settle, decide, decree 3. Skill, art, adroitness, readiness, by judicial authorityadjudicate. Manner in speakiing to anzother. Address one's self to, Direct one's Adjudication, n. Sentence, decision, speech or discourse to, speak to. Advance, offer, pre- ment. Name, cite, quote, introduce. Master, proficient, genius, addendumn, something added. Entreaty as if to one good hand, master hand, capital hand, bound by oathsolemn charge.
Entreat as if under oathAdept, a. Skilled, versed, experienced, conjure, obtest, beseech, pray, supplipractised, proficient, good, at home, AU cate, beg, conjure, implore, invoke, FAIT. Sufficiency, competence, Adjust, v. Arrange, dispose, reccompetency, enough, adequateness. Sufficient, commensurate, set to rights, put in tune, put in good proportionate, correspondent, equal, trim. Settle, compose, reconcile, make Adhere, v. Stick; cling, cleave, up. Fit, adapt, suit, proportion, ac2.
Be faithful, be devoted, be at- commodate, measure, make conform, tached, stand by, be true. Attachment, constancy, fidelity, justing, putting in order, putting in devotion, adhesion. Regulation, setting, putting right. Advise, counsel, caution, forewarn, 3. Does body language include facial expression and eye movement? What about breathing and perspiration? And while tone and pitch of voice are part of verbal signals, are these part of body language too? It's a matter of interpretation.
A good reason for broadening the scope of body language is to avoid missing important signals which might not be considered within a narrow definition of body language. Nevertheless, confusion easily arises if definitions and context are not properly established, for example: Mehrabian's research findings in fact focused on communications with a strong emotional or 'feelings' element.
Care must therefore be exercised when stating specific figures relating to percentages of meaning conveyed, or in making any firm claims in relation to body language and non-verbal communications. It is safe to say that body language represents a very significant proportion of meaning that is conveyed and interpreted between people.
So while body language statistics vary according to situation, it is generally accepted that non-verbal communications are very important in how we understand each other or fail toespecially in face-to-face and one-to-one communications, and most definitely when the communications involve an emotional or attitudinal element.
Body language is especially crucial when we meet someone for the first time. We form our opinions of someone we meet for the first time in just a few seconds, and this initial instinctual assessment is based far more on what we see and feel about the other person than on the words they speak.
On many occasions we form a strong view about a new person before they speak a single word. Consequently body language is very influential in forming impressions on first meeting someone.
The effect happens both ways - to and from: When we meet someone for the first time, their body language, on conscious and unconscious levels, largely determines our initial impression of them.
In turn when someone meets us for the first time, they form their initial impression of us largely from our body language and non-verbal signals. And this two-way effect of body language continues throughout communications and relationships between people.
Body language is constantly being exchanged and interpreted between people, even though much of the time this is happening on an unconscious level. Remember - while you are interpreting consciously or unconsciously the body language of other people, so other people are constantly interpreting yours. The people with the most conscious awareness of, and capabilities to read, body language tend to have an advantage over those whose appreciation is limited largely to the unconscious.
You will shift your own awareness of body language from the unconscious into the conscious by learning about the subject, and then by practising your reading of non-verbal communications in your dealings with others.
More than body positions and movements Body language is not just about how we hold and move our bodies. Body language potentially although not always, depending on the definition you choose to apply encompasses: Arguably this last point should be encompassed by body language, because a lot happens here which can easily be missed if we consider merely the spoken word and the traditional narrow definition of body language or non-verbal communications.
Voice type and other audible signals are typically not included in body language because they are audible 'verbal' signals rather than physical visual ones, nevertheless the way the voice is used is a very significant usually unconscious aspect of communication, aside from the bare words themselves.
Consequently, voice type is always important to consider alongside the usual body language factors. Similarly, breathing and heartbeat, etc. Our reactions to other people's eyes - movement, focus, expression, etc - and their reactions to our eyes - contribute greatly to mutual assessment and understanding, consciously and unconsciously.
With no words at all, massive feeling can be conveyed in a single glance. The metaphor which describes the eyes of two lovers meeting across a crowded room is not only found in old romantic movies. It's based on scientific fact - the strong powers of non-verbal communications. These effects - and similar powerful examples - have existed in real human experience and behaviour for thousands of years.
The human body and our instinctive reactions have evolved to an amazingly clever degree, which many of us ignore or take for granted, and which we can all learn how to recognize more clearly if we try. Our interpretation of body language, notably eyes and facial expressions, is instinctive, and with a little thought and knowledge we can significantly increase our conscious awareness of these signals: Doing so gives us a significant advantage in life - professionally and personally - in our dealings with others.
Body language is not just reading the signals in other people. Importantly, understanding body language enables better self-awareness and self-control too. We understand more about other people's feelings and meanings, and we also understand more about these things in ourselves. When we understand body language we become better able to refine and improve what our body says about us, which generates a positive improvement in the way we feel, the way we perform, and what we achieve.
Definitions As explained, the terms body language and non-verbal communications are rather vague. So what is body language? And more usefully, what might we regard it to be, if we are to make the most of studying and using it? The Oxford English Dictionary revised definition is: Appropriately and interestingly the Oxford Business English Dictionary emphasizes the sense that body language can be used as a tool, rather than it being an involuntary effect with no particular purpose: The course trains sales people in reading the customer's body language.
Body language certainly also encompasses where the body is in relation to other bodies often referred to as 'personal space'. Body language certainly also includes very small bodily movements such as facial expressions and eye movements. Body language also arguably covers all that we communicate through our bodies apart from the spoken words thereby encompassing breathing, perspiration, pulse, blood-pressure, blushing, etc.
In this respect, standard dictionary definitions don't always describe body language fully and properly. We could define body language more fully as: Body posture, movement, physical state, position and relationship to other bodies, objects and surroundings, Facial expression and eye movement, and this transmission and interpretation can be quite different to the spoken words.
We find clues to additional or true meaning in body language. Being able to 'read' body language therefore helps us greatly: Background and history Philosophers and scientists have connected human physical behaviour with meaning, mood and personality for thousands of years, but only in living memory has the study of body language become as sophisticated and detailed as it is today.
Body language studies and written works on the subject are very sparse until the mids. The first known experts to consider aspects of body language were probably the ancient Greeks, notably Hippocrates and Aristotle, through their interest in human personality and behaviour, and the Romans, notably Cicero, relating gestures to feelings and communications. Much of this early interest was in refining ideas about oration - speech-making - given its significance to leadership and government.
Isolated studies of body language appeared in more recent times, for example Francis Bacon in Advancement of Learning,explored gestures as reflection or extension of spoken communications. John Bulwer's Natural History of the Hand published inconsidered hand gestures. Gilbert Austin's Chironomia in looked at using gestures to improve speech-making. Charles Darwin in the late s could be regarded as the earliest expert to have made serious scientific observation about body language, but there seems little substantial development of ideas for at least the next years.
Darwin's work pioneered much ethological thinking. Ethology began as the science of animal behaviour. It became properly established during the early s and increasingly extends to human behaviour and social organization.
Where ethology considers animal evolution and communications, it relates strongly to human body language. Ethologists have progressively applied their findings to human behaviour, including body language, reflecting the evolutionary origins of much human non-verbal communication - and society's growing acceptance of evolutionary rather than creationist theory.