It is not easy to describe the relation between syntax and semantics, but it is But Chomsky and others were not happy about the division, and. However, note that the fields of semantics and pragmatics are integrally study of the relationship between words, the interlocutors and the context. Another difference can be found in Grice's Theory of Implicature which is. I will discuss the relationship between semantics and linguistic theory, and leave the other branches for others to answer. The short answer is: Semantics plays a crucial role in understanding how language works. In the '70's, semanticists trained in linguistics linked Montague's.
But Chomsky and others were not happy about the division, and today there are many syntacticians who keep themselves away from the "dangerous" interface with semantics.
Now, to be more specific about your question, but still general about the definitions, I think that you could see syntax as independent from semantics but not the other way around. Let's say the goal of syntax is to develop theories about the similarities and differences between linguistic structures within and across languages.What is Semantics? - Definition of Semantics
Let's also assume that we can study elements that are necessary for those structures to be well-formed, and that their meaning is not essential for the interpretation of the whole structure. Then it is possible to say that syntax does not need semantics, or that it is structure what determines meaning.
Whether that is interesting or helpful is up to the syntacticians who work under such view. As for semantics, it simply cannot be studied without reference to syntax, for any meaningful phrase or sentence is always a that, a phrase or a sentence, so it must have a certain structure. If we want to study language in a more comprehensive way, I think the relation bewteen syntax and semantics must be one of interdependence, and thus it is more fruitful to study the way structures are built up and also the meaning that arises from such building operation.
Semantics - Wikipedia
Just as we have structure building from a syntactic perspective, we have function application from a semantic perspective. This is one of the several general descriptions of the relation between syntax and semantics, but again, the specific views depend on the theories of syntax and semantics which you are working with. Even if the view is that syntax and semantics are related in some way, there are approaches in which syntactic and semantic structures are generated independently, for instance 1 below.
Semantics Sense relations The different types of sense relations can be described with the help of the logical operations of implication and contradiction. A logical implication is a metalinguistic relation between two propositions p and q: This concept of implication plays a crucial role in describing the semantic relations of synonymy and hyponymy.
Similarities and Differences between Semantics and Pragmatics | Rami Alghamdi
Synonymy is the semantic relation between two words that have the same or nearly the same meaning. Referring to the definition of logical implication, synonymy corresponds to a bilateral implication or equivalence: Thus, synonymy presupposes the substitutability of the given expressions in all contexts. These expressions share the same denotational and connotational meaning and are referred to as complete synonyms.
However, most synonyms are partial synonyms and differ with regard to their connotations. In contrast to synonymy, hyponymy corresponds to a unilateral implication: Two expressions A and B in the same syntactic position are hyponyms if A implies B and the converse does not hold e.
Relationship Between Semantics and other Levels of Linguistics and Branches of Linguistics
Thus, hyponymy can be viewed as the semantic relation of subordination, i. An item A is a hyponym of B, if the meaning of A is included in the meaning of B, but not vice versa. The superordinate term is referred to as hyperonym, while hyponyms that share the same hyperonym are called co-hyponyms.