Running title: Testosterone-induced neuronal apoptosis. * These authors . fluorescence intensity ratio (F/Fo) was plotted as a function of time. We have investigated the effect of testosterone on intracellular calcium in .. A dose-response relationship was observed from 0 to 1 μm testosterone on the. Mention the word calcium, and just about everyone thinks about bones or teeth. It's true that the majority of calcium is stored in bones, but the.
Low Testosterone: How to Protect Your Bones
Humana Press Inc; — Osteoporosis and male age-related hypogonadism: Osteoporosis in developing countries. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk. An overview of bone sonometry. Guglielmi G, de Terlizzi F. Quantitative Ultrasond in the assessment of Osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
Low bone mass in hypogonadal males. Effect of testosterone substitution therapy, a densitometric study. N Engl J Med. Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens.
Relative contributions of testosterone and estrogen in regulating bone resorption and formation in normal elderly men. Calcium Metabolism in Health and Disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol.
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This suggests that low-testosterone levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, a number of clinical studies have shown that low endogenous levels of testosterone are associated with cardiovascular disease [ 4 ].
Furthermore, testosterone-replacement therapy, which is used to treat testosterone deficiency secondary to aging [ 7 ], may have beneficial effects in the setting of heart failure and ischemic heart disease [ 489 ]. Despite the popularity of testosterone supplementation in older adults, how testosterone affects the heart is not fully understood.
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The discovery of androgen receptors in individual heart cells myocytes [ 1011 ] suggests that testosterone might modulate heart function, at least in part, by effects on the ventricular myocytes themselves. Testosterone The principal male sex hormone, testosterone, is an androgen steroid.
Testosterone plays important roles in normal growth and development, and its levels decline with age in both men and women. The following discussion provides a broad overview of testosterone, and its receptors, including pathways involved in its biosynthesis, regulation, and metabolism.
Testosterone in men and women Testosterone is produced primarily by the testes in men, although it also can be produced by the adrenal glands and other sites including adipose tissue and bone [ 1415 ].
Their observation supports the hypothesis that testosterone plays an important role in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation. Testosterone has an effect on the urinary glycoprotein osteopontin, which is a inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystallization.
Several studies revealed that the greatest difference in idiopathic stone formation is seen in the third and fourth decades of life , and at the sixth decade, the incidence of stones and testosterone begin to decline [2,11]. In the current study, the maximum number of patients was identified between 30 to 39 years of age, and there was no difference among the age groups regarding patient category with relation to total and free serum testosterone.
Though the current study failed to establish a relationship between serum testosterone and age, a large cohort study may be necessary to establish any relationship between the two. Previous animal research has reported a direct correlation between serum testosterone and urinary oxalate excretion. It is generally known that age and sex are risk factors for urolithiasis. Van Aswegen et al. An investigation of the total urinary testosterone confirmed that the concentration is age dependent.
A distinct decrease in total testosterone was observed in elderly persons.
Low Testosterone: How to Protect Your Bones | Everyday Health
In general, the testosterone level of the kidney stone patients was lower than that of their healthy counterparts. In order to determine whether this variation in testosterone concentration would affect the urinary urokinase activity, a correlation study was undertaken.
It therefore seemed that the total urinary testosterone concentrations may play a role in the pathogenesis of this multifactorial disease, urolithiasis.
A study by Hedayati et al. But they failed to establish a definite relation due to a low number of cases. Tiselius and colleagues demonstrated no change in urinary oxalate excretion in castrated prostatic carcinoma patients . However, the mean age of these patients was 71 years; little attention was paid to standardizing or quantifying oxalate intake. In the current study, 24 hours of urinary oxalate was estimated in both cases and the control. The correlation between serum testosterone and urinary oxalate was determined.
There was a positive correlation between serum testosterone total and free and urinary oxalate. This may prove the hypothetical issue of serum testosterone as a lithogenic factor for calcium oxalate stones in the future.
Although free testosterone was not significantly associated, total testosterone was higher in stone formers in comparison to the control.
However, 24 hours of urinary oxalate was not estimated and a definite correlation could not be achieved. Moreover stone analysis was not done to find out the stone component and its probable relation to serum testosterone.
In the current study, both free and total serum testosterone and 24 hours of urinary oxalate are higher and have statistical significant values free testosterone: These findings observed in the current study were consistent with previous animal and human studies.
In the current study, stone analysis was done in all cases, and calcium oxalate stones were found in 40 patients As stone formers have higher levels of testosterone both free and total and high levels of urinary oxalate in comparison to the control group, the finding of the maximum number of calcium oxalate stone in cases may help to establish the relation between serum testosterone and urinary oxalate.
As stone analysis was not performed in previous reported studies, the current study may provide positive contributions to establish the relationship of serum testosterone to calcium oxalate stones.
Men with high testosterone levels may not develop stones due to some protective mechanism against high testosterone levels. More research is an integral requirement in the future to find out the probable protective mechanism. Due to a limited case number, we cannot strongly point out that relation. A long-term study and a large cohort may give us stronger evidence in the near future. In this current prospective study we have observed a statistically significant, higher level of free and total testosterone and 24 hours of urinary oxalate in stone formers compared to control.
Serum testosterone has a weak positive correlation to urinary oxalate in stone formers and a higher number of patients had calcium oxalate stones.