Pakistan army's long history of political meddling | Dhaka Tribune
students, teachers' presentation of evidence, or discussion of alternative sources .. military dictatorship in the s Pakistan studies was made a . Muslim millat, and that the relationship with the West is mainly strategic and economic . Dec 18, A Pakistani army soldier stands guard outside the Army Public School it was the Army Public School and College, and most of the students It's easier to kill children and teachers than to attack heavily fortified had to try to make The Guardian sustainable by deepening our relationship with our readers. Dec 13, Pakistan: Balochistan Militants Killing Teachers victims of such “targeted killings,” teachers and students constitute a significant Human Rights Watch calls on armed groups in Balochistan to immediately . The province has historically had a tense relationship with Pakistan's government, in large part.
Police used tear gas to disperse the students and charged at them with batons. Media reported that the police detained three students. He wanted to stay in Quetta and continue teaching. The BLA claimed responsibility. A local police official quoted in a news report said the incident could be a targeted killing.
Media reports said the men were Christian. A relative was also injured in the attack. The BLUF claimed responsibility.
Educational institutions in the province were closed for three days of mourning following the attack. He was referred to a hospital in Quetta for treatment, but died before arriving. Maher, an ethnic Pashtun, had served in the education department for 37 years. No one has claimed responsibility for the killing. Baig was originally from Lahore. According to Azaad Baloch, a BLA spokesman, Baig was targeted because he opposed recitation of the Baloch nationalist anthem in school and because he did not want to hoist the nationalist flag.
Originally from Punjab, Baig had lived in Balochistan for more than 15 years. A bystander, a boy, was wounded. BLA spokesman Beebargh Baloch said that Kayani was targeted because he worked for the intelligence agencies and that it had warned Kayani against involvement in student activities.
Kayani had been at Balochistan University since She died on the scene. Usman was from Punjab. Some schools, particularly in rural areas, are left understaffed because it is difficult to fill the vacancies.
Students interviewed by Human Rights Watch expressed dissatisfaction with the quality of teachers who replaced those who transferred, although that may be explained by factors besides teacher effectiveness. Even when teachers stay in their assigned towns, some do not report to work, while others admit to doing a less conscientious job due to anxiety and distractions caused by the deteriorating security situation.
Consequences when Teachers Transfer According to government statistics, education personnel transferred within Balochistan and 44 transferred out of Balochistan between January and April Almost another education personnel have requested transfers, which were being processed at this writing.
Many are, but there are those who assume they are at risk.
But that, too, is natural given the circumstances in a given village or neighborhood … I think in many areas there have been no attacks against teachers but still teachers are requesting transfers. Many of these teachers were threatened, others were scared and the government can do little to encourage them to stay in these districts.
For example, the Education Department in Quetta does not have enough open teaching positions to accommodate all the transferred teachers. As a result, many have not been assigned to a specific school and therefore are not working as teachers. Some teachers do not even wait for official permission to transfer.
It has been approved … but still I am without a school. Given the ratio of teachers to schools in the province in was only two-to-one, the potential for disruption when even one teacher leaves a school is dramatic. The problem is not the transfers at this point; it is their replacement…. Schools whose teachers have been transferred to other districts are understaffed…. The problem is more complicated with the schools where the teaching staff was already small. It is also important to note that a mathematics teacher will only teach mathematics.
Most of these [teachers] who have been transferred have no formal assignments to do … I think most of them just sit and kill time. There were 21 teachers at the time I left [my school] but there was no subject specialist for English. I taught English … and what I know is to this day the school has no subject specialist for English … so definitely the school is suffering. There are many people … locals of [district name withheld] … sensible and responsible. A total of 10 teachers have left so far.
The replacement of teachers is going to be a disaster. I am afraid that this institution will collapse someday soon. It is a loss for the students, for this province, and for Pakistan. So far the [school] has been really struggling in terms of finding qualified experienced replacements.
No one wants to come here and the provincial administration is interested in recruiting local staff so that they are not targeted. Some new local teaching staff has been hired but they are under-qualified and lack professionalism. A senior education civil servant said: We used to hire lecturers from across Pakistan … But now we are forced to hire from Balochistan because no one is coming from other provinces and there is also a political pressure to hire locally.
This is a huge problem. Most of the locals we interviewed for the positions of English teachers could hardly pronounce an English word correctly.
It is a huge compromise to make. For me one of the biggest changes was seeing my teachers leave. During the last two years many of our teachers who taught here for years left due to security problems … many of them have left. My favorite teacher who taught physics has long gone.
He was great … he was experienced and knew his subject. He left due to the attacks against teachers and non-locals. The new teachers are not nearly as good as the old ones. The biggest loss we face due to the security situation is the loss of our teachers. Some are not coming [to school] at all, while others attend irregularly.
Most of us are working to contribute toward our household earning to make ends meet. Some of our colleagues are still pressured by their families to quit or get transferred to some other school. For most of us this job is not a luxury but a necessity. We fear that some day they may be targeted on their way back home after dropping us at the school. I was not directly threatened…. When [name of a school teacher withheld] was killed in [location withheld], that was it.
I got really scared.
Taliban attack Pakistani school killing students
A friend called me … [and] asked if I knew that [name of a school teacher withheld] had been shot … I was horrified. I went home, put my essentials in a bag and left for Quetta without formally asking for an official transfer to Quetta.
A senior government official told Human Rights Watch that he estimated that in there were only working days for government schools in the province,  compared to approximately days in the rest of the country.
For the winter holiday, the provincial government decided to start vacations in private and government-run educational institutions on November 28,rather than December 15, as normal. The decision to move the start date forward was reportedly decided upon to minimize the risk of threats to educational institutions.
In April many schools closed for a week when riots erupted in response to the killing of the three Baloch leaders. All public schools also closed for a week or more following the murder of the education minister in October Attacks and Threats on Schools Militants in Balochistan have threatened and carried out attacks on schools, including school buildings filled with students and teachers. The same militant nationalist and sectarian motives that underpin violence against teachers are evident in the attacks on schools.
Whatever their motives, such assaults endanger the lives of children and others, and damage the right to access education in safety and security. Attacks have included arson, and the use of grenades and bombs, and have occurred during the evening as well as the day, while teachers and students are present.
Following an attack on one school, a young teenage student told Human Rights Watch: I was in the classroom when I heard the explosion. It was very loud … it scared us … I ran to the school yard as soon as we heard the explosion. The classroom windows were shattered. Many students were already in the yard. I saw smoke … I heard many children screaming. I think some of them got light injuries because of falling on the pieces of glass when they were running in chaos.
I got really scared when I realized it was a bomb explosion…. My father came to pick me up from the school. I think I was in some kind of shock. I had little energy in my body … when we were on our way to our home, I fainted in the car. I like this school. All my friends are still coming to the school. But I still feel scared sometimes. I think most children are still scared…. My education has been affected because mentally most of us have gone through a shock. I think some of the students did not take the final exams….
My family often discusses my safety at home… at times with our neighbor too. My parents worry about my safety when I am at school…. The truth is, I really want things to improve so we continue our studies without any fear.
This incident has scared everyone. Our teachers are scared too. It was a terrible incident. However, from interviews with eyewitnesses and a survey of public news reports, Human Rights Watch was able to collect basic details of attacks listed below in reverse chronological order.
Fearing further attacks, none of the teachers or students whom Human Rights Watch interviewed wanted it known that individuals from their school had talked with our researchers. No one was injured. A teacher quickly picked up the device and threw it onto the roof where it exploded. Three people nearby were injured. The grenade blew a hole in the staff room roof and shrapnel wounded two teachers and at least one student. Six people were reported killed and 12 others wounded. Capital City police officer for Quetta, Humayun Khan Jogezai, told media the suicide bomber was 14 or years-old, although other news reports stated he was older.
The vehicle was damaged but there were no casualties.
As it happened: Pakistan families bury children - BBC News
At least five people died, and another 10 to 14 were wounded. Reports vary as to whether the incident was a suicide bombing, or whether the bomb was thrown or planted. Four rooms were destroyed. The warehouse supplied free textbooks to students throughout Balochistan. Several schools were bombing targets in the lead up to the elections, but reports are unclear as to whether they were intended to be used as polling stations: The pamphlets warned that there would be serious consequences for noncompliance.
Even the local teachers … even those who are Baloch hesitate to teach this subject because it could put their lives at risk. Following other schools, we no longer have the national anthem in our morning assemblies. For example we used to celebrate Pakistan Day on March 23 and the Independence Day on August 14 every year by holding activities in which students participate. For example, a private school in Gwadar district received a threatening letter demanding that the school stop allowing girls and boys to study together at the school.
Female students were instructed to observe full Islamic hijab. The group distributed leaflets among private schools in the district, and included a two-day ultimatum for the schools to change their practice. Anna Lopriore, creative manager; Kathy Mills, publications coordinator; and Fitzroy Hepkins, mail manager, provided production assistance. Human Rights Watch is grateful for the assistance of I. Over the next decade some seven prime ministers come and go before the military finally has enough of the chaos, with General Ayub Khan launching the country's first military coup in He is succeeded by General Yahya Khan in in the face of mass unrest, but Pakistan does not come back under civilian leadership until a disastrous civil war sees East Pakistan splinter away to form Bangladesh in Khan hands over the presidency to Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto that same year.
Bhutto's hanging and the second coup Bhutto, founder of the populist Pakistan Peoples Party PPPappoints a new army chief in - General Zia-ul-Haq - a surprise promotion that some say reflected the prime minister's view that Zia was no threat. If so, it proves a wild miscalculation. Not only does Zia depose Bhutto in the country's second coup inhe jails the prime minister and, two years later, has him hanged.
Zia's totalitarian rule sees him impose Islamic laws and organise sham elections. He remains in power until he is killed inwhen his Hercules C aircraft mysteriously crashes in Pakistan. Benazir, Nawaz, and the third coup Zia's death ushers civilian rule back in under the leadership of his old nemesis Bhutto's daughter, Benazir, who becomes the first female leader of any Muslim country.
By targeting schools, the Taliban has struck at the heart of Pakistan
She leads from untilwhen she is ousted on corruption charges that she insinuates were fuelled by the military. She is replaced by Nawaz Sharif, in the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz PML-N leader's first stint as prime minister, setting in place a paradigm of revolving leadership between the two politicians that continues until the army, once again, loses patience. Bythe relationship between Sharif in his second stint as premier and then-army chief General Pervez Musharraf is rapidly deteriorating.
Musharraf ousts Sharif in the country's third coup. From Musharraf into democracy? Musharraf names himself president in while remaining head of the army.