He claims that the East African slave trade had been continuous and massive since antiquity on the coast and began trading in the interior. The caravan trade of the nineteenth century opened up the interior, bringing many African peoples into the world economy as suppliers of ivory or slaves or. Demystified · Quizzes · Galleries · Lists · On This Day · Biographies · Newsletters European and African interaction from the 15th through the 18th century governors of Luanda launched armed incursions against the people of the interior. . These trade relationships profoundly affected the nature of contact between the.Nchi 7 Ambazo Hutumia KISWAHILI Kama Lugha ya Mawasiliano
They seem to have been Maravi people, who had first migrated from Luba territory to the southern end of Lake Nyasa in the 14th century. There they broke up into a number of chiefdoms, usually under the paramountcy of the most powerful chief, who controlled the rain shrine at the heart of the local religion. The reasons for the emergence of the Zimba are far from clear, however. The Maravi attacked chiefs friendly to the Portuguese, as well as their settlements at Sena and Tete and on the coast.
By the Mwene Mutapa was forced to call on the Portuguese for assistance, and this led to almost a century of increasingly disruptive Portuguese intervention in the affairs of Shona kingdoms to the south of the Zambezi.
Other southeastern African states Although attempts to drive the Portuguese from the Zambezi valley were unsuccessful until the late 17th century, when they were driven out by the armies of the Rozwi kingdom, this appearance of Portuguese power was deceptive: In addition to gold, the Portuguese were interested in ivory and other mineral resources of the eastern African interior, particularly afterwhen the gold appeared exhausted.
A search for silver mines had led them first into Malawi in the 17th century, and from that point there is direct, though fragmentary, evidence of developments in the region. While the Portuguese records suggest that before there were no large states in the region, by the first decades of the 17th century a powerful state had emerged under Muzura, perhaps out of an earlier system of small Maravi states at the southern end of Lake Nyasa.
Although initially Muzura was assisted by the Portuguese, his power was based on exacting tribute from the Portuguese and their allies south of the Zambezi.
In the early s dissident Karanga and Manyika attempted once more to expel the Portuguese from Zambesia; Muzura joined the alliance and unsuccessfully attacked the coastal town of Quelimane. This defeat seems to have ended his challenge to the Portuguese; thereafter he concentrated on controlling the territory in the western Shire Highlands to the north, trading ivory and, increasingly, slaves with the Portuguese to the south.
By mid century Muzura was eclipsed by the Kalonga, whose capital lay on the southwestern shore of Lake Nyasa, while by the turn of the 18th century the rise of the well-armed Yao in the trade between Lake Nyasa and the coast, and of the Bisa as middlemen to the west, contributed to the disintegration of the Maravi confederacy into several more or less autonomous fragments.
This process was further accelerated by the wars and slave raids of the 19th century and the introduction of missionaries. By the early 18th century the Portuguese also had penetrated into present-day Zambiaestablishing trading fairs at Zumbo and Feira on the Zambezi.
Although there were no highly organized broker kingdoms in the area, prazeros traded gold and slaves to the coast. The declining power of the Portuguese As in west-central Africa, from the beginning of the 17th century the Portuguese faced increasingly severe competition from Dutch and British ships in the Indian Oceanwhile north of Cape Delgado the Arabs also took advantage of Portuguese weakness.
In a series of revolts began on the east coast; by the beginning of the 18th century the Portuguese had been driven from the coast north of the Rovuma River.
The Portuguese then turned their attention southward, where they had traded at Delagoa Bay with the local Tsonga inhabitants since the mid 16th century. They were unable to establish themselves at the bay permanently, however, and through the 18th century Dutch, English, and Austrian ships competed for the local ivory while North American whalers also traded there for food and cattle.
Local chiefdoms vied for this market, and this competition contributed to the buildup of larger states in the hinterland of Delagoa Bay from the mid 18th century. Doubtless there was also trade in slaves, although the numbers seem to have remained relatively small before the 19th century. In the late 16th century the Cape had become a regular port of call for the crews of European ships, who found local people Khoekhoe ready to barter cattle in exchange for ironcopper, beads, tobacco, and brandy.
By the mid 17th century Khoekhoe intermediaries traded far into the interior. These trade relationships profoundly affected the nature of contact between the Khoekhoe and the Dutch.
This outpost soon grew into a colony of settlement. In the company released a number of its servants as free burghers citizens in order to cultivate land and herd cattle on its behalf. Slaves arrived the next year via a Dutch ship, which had captured them from a Portuguese vessel bound from Angola to Brazil.
Thereafter slaves continued to arrive at the Cape from Madagascar and parts of western and eastern Africa.
Although the company prohibited the enslavement of the local inhabitants, in order to protect the cattle trade, the loosely organized Khoekhoe were soon undermined by the incessant Dutch demands for their cattle and encroachment on their grazing lands and waterholes.
As one group became impoverished and reluctant to trade, another would take its place. The climate of the Cape was well suited to Europeans, and their birth rate was high; whereas in Angola and Mozambique the Portuguese were ravaged by disease, at the Cape it was the indigenes who were decimated by epidemics of smallpox, influenza, and measles brought by Europeans. Men outnumbered women 3 to 2.
Nevertheless, class divisions in Cape Town and its environs were marked. A small group of affluent merchants and status-conscious company servants lived in Cape Town; in the neighbouring farming districts of the southwestern Cape a wealthy gentry used slave labour to produce wine and wheat for passing ships.
Independent small farmers eked out a living on the land, and a number of landless whites worked for others, generally as supervisors. In the arid interior, economic necessity and ecology dictated a pastoral way of life for the Dutch cattle farmers, or trekboers. The poor soil and inadequate rainfall of the region necessitated vast, scattered farms, and the white population was thus thinly spread over an immense area.
Although earlier literature stresses their mobility and subsistence economy, most frontier families occupied the same farms during their lifetime and remained dependent on the market for essentials such as arms and ammunition as well as for luxuries such as tea, coffee, tobacco, and sugar. The greatest barrier to Dutch expansion was the range of mountains inland from Cape Town.
Once these were crossed and Khoisan resistance overcome, trekboers expanded rapidly to the east and north, while the company made only sporadic attempts to follow them. The new districts of StellenboschDrakensteinSwellendamand Graaff-Reinet were large and unwieldy, and their centres were far from the expanding colonists. Governmental authority was weak, and on the frontier trekboers were left to crush Khoisan resistance and mount their own defense through the commando system.
African societies and the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade (article) | Khan Academy
They became accustomed to handling emergencies on their own and to ruling over their slaves and Khoisan servants and clients as they saw fit, often with a ferocity born of fear. Slavery at the Cape The number of slaves increased along with the settler population, especially in the arable districts.
Experiments in the use of indentured European labour were unsuccessful, and by the mid 18th century about half the burghers at the Cape owned at least one slave, though few owned more than Slaves spoke the creolized Dutch that in the 19th century became Afrikaans. Many adopted Islam, which alarmed the ruling class.
Divided in origin and dispersed geographically, slaves did not establish a cohesive culture or mount effective rebellions. Individual acts of defiance were frequent, however, and in the early 19th century there were two small uprisings. Nevertheless, in Cape Town itself slave culture provided the basis for a working-class culture after emancipation. Slavery at the Cape is often portrayed as benignbut mortality rates were high and birth rates low; punishments for even minor misdemeanours were fierce, perhaps because adult male slaves greatly outnumbered their owners.
Manumission, baptism, and intermarriage rates were also low, although newcomers and poorer burghers married slave women and, more rarely, Khoekhoe women. Cohabitation with indigenous women was more common, especially in frontier districts where there were few white women. The children of these interracial unions, however, took on the unprivileged status of their mothers, so the practice did not affect the racially defined class structure of the society forming at the Cape.
By the late 18th century in the Cape most blacks were servants and most Europeans were masters. The existence of slavery affected the status and opportunities of the dispossessed Khoisan who entered the labour market in increasing numbers from the late 17th century. Although theoretically they were free, compulsion governed the relationship between master and servant, and the legal status of the Khoisan increasingly approximated that of slaves, especially when, during the wars of the late 18th century, the trekboers were allowed to employ captive women and children.
Typically, these servants became a part of the extended tribal family. There is some evidence of chattel slavery, in which people were treated as personal property, in the Nile Valley. It appears there was a slave-trade route through the Sahara that brought sub-Saharan Africans to Rome, a global center of slavery.
West Africans transported to the coast to be sold into slavery. Wikimedia Commons Religion and the African empire Religious movement helped shape African societal structure.
Following the death of the prophet Muhammad in CE, Islam spread quickly across North Africa, bringing not only a unifying faith but a political and legal structure as well. Only those who had converted to Islam could rule or be engaged in trade. The first major empire to emerge in West Africa was the Ghana Empire. Bythe Soninke farmers of the region had become wealthy by taxing traders who traversed their area.
For instance, the Niger River basin supplied gold to the Berber and Arab traders from west of the Nile Valley, who brought cloth, weapons, and manufactured goods into the African interior. Soon, however, a new kingdom emerged. Miners then discovered huge new deposits of gold east of the Niger River.
Timbuktu, the capital city, became a leading Islamic center for education, commerce, and the slave trade. The vast and glorious civilization of Timbuktu. The East had bountiful new resources, like spices and silk, and the Portuguese were eager to acquire these goods without the laborious journey by land from Europe to Asia.
Originally built as a fortified trading post, the castle had mounted cannons facing out to sea, not inland toward continental Africa. The Portuguese had greater fear of a naval attack from other Europeans than of a land attack from Africans.
Although the Portuguese originally used the fort for trading gold, by the 16th century they had shifted their focus to trading enslaved people, as the demand for slave labor ballooned in the New World. The dungeon of the fort morphed to served as a holding pen for Africans from the interior of the continent. On the upper floors, Portuguese traders ate, slept, and prayed.
Enslaved people lived in the dungeon for weeks or months until ships arrived to transport them to Europe or the Americas. For them, the dungeon of Elmina was their last sight of their home continent.
African societies and the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade
The door of no return at Elmina Castle. Wikimedia Commons Bythe Portuguese brought enslaved people from Africa to work on the sugar plantations of the Madeira Islands, off the coast of modern Morocco. The slave trade then expanded across the Atlantic as European colonies demanded an ever-increasing number of workers for the extensive plantations growing the labor-intensive crops of tobacco, sugar, and eventually rice and cotton.