Relationship of sociology and anthropology to other social science

relationship of sociology and anthropology to other social science

Hence it is obvious that other social sciences are closely related to sociology. Sociology is .. Hence it has close and intimate relationship with Anthropology. Anthropology is traditionally distinguished from other disciplines by its The Relationship Between Sociology and the Social Sciences. Relationships of Anthropology with other disciplines like Social Sciences, Behavioral Sciences, Life Relationship between Social Anthropology and Sociology.

relationship of sociology and anthropology to other social science

Some anthropologists are concerned primarily with the past forms of Pre-human and early human species, an area of study known as fossil man.

Others concentrate on the similarities and differences between the various primate species, which include not only human, but apes and monkeys as well. This area of study is called primatology. A third area, known as the study of human variation, or anthropological genetics, deals with contemporary as well as historical variations among populations of humans. It is concerned with questions such as the adaptation of a group of people to a specific climate, the natural immunity of some peoples to certain disease.

Anthropology and Environmental Sciences Scientists of different disciplines have increasingly become interested in the study of different aspects of environment. Anthropologists are no exception to this. As a matter of fact anthropologists always attach great importance to environment, because man is regarded as product of interaction between heredity and environment. Man as an organism is grown and developed in conformity with both physical and social environment. If he cannot meet the challenge or adapt to his environments, especially physically, man will die and would have been extinct since prehistoric times.

Many creatures have been found to have become extinct being unable to bear the rigours of the environment. Being equipped with cultural means in coping with nature, human beings have been able to adjust to variety of environments including even the polar areas. As they had to depend upon their biological qualities only without having any cultural equipment, the other creatures could not live in the adverse environment and so their living is not so widespread in the world.

Man, on the other hand, could alter the environmental conditions by means of his culture and making it favourable to serve his needs. If there is dearth of water, man can dig well or pond and get water. If the habitat is full of jungles and forests, man clean the jungles and forests by his tools and implements and make it suitable for agriculture.

By domestication of plants he can have variety of fruits and others. With the materials available in the surroundings man can build house to have a settled life.

relationship of sociology and anthropology to other social science

But, however, man has to depend partly on physical environment and natural resources as he cannot make him absolutely free from influences of environment. That is why different cultures have taken shape in accordance with different environments. Thus environment and culture have close relationship. Friedrich Ratzel, a German anthropo-geogapher had opined that natural setting plays a great role in shaping the ways of life of the people but his followers emphasized that environment determines man's way of life and sponsored the theory of geographical determinism.

relationship of sociology and anthropology to other social science

According to the environmentalists man is subservient to environment and culture. The contribution of environment which determines the ways of man's living natural resources, climate, geographical situation not only control the material cultural activities but also determines the development of industry, commerce, religion, social systems and civilizations also. The students of cultural anthropology maintain that the way in which a human group adapts to a particular environment is not determined by its geographical features alone but is also influenced by various other forces like technological, biological, psychological, historical which play on culture.

Anthropology Relationships with other disciplines

To illustrate this point the following may be referred to. The American South-West was first occupied by the sparse nomadic hunting or food gathering bands. Later the Ropi and Zuni of the pueblo Indians developed agriculture and lived a permanent, closely packed community life. Still later, the Spaniards appeared there with horses, guns and metal tools and each group of them had its own particular equipment for coping with the environment and catering to the needs for living.

The present day population lead a still different way of life with modern amenities including electricity, air-conditioning automobiles, television, and so forth. Again, in the small state of Swat in North -Western Pakistan among the three ethnic groups, one was found to have recourse to both agriculture and pastoralism combined. So, it is found that each human society exploits equipment to serve their different needs.

Further, it has been observed that although the Eskimos of northernmost North America and the Chukchi of Siberia face rigors of arctic climate. Their cultures are different. Again, culture may be the same in different environments.

In the West cultivation is generally undertaken in the plain areas and the same is found on the hills also. The Assamese people in the Brahmaputra valley do rice cultivation. The Apatanis of Arunachal Pradesh, the Nagas of Nagaland and the Ifugao of Phillipines do rice cultivation on the slopes of the hills by terracing and irrigation.

From the above example, it can be concluded that no single factor can determine the ways of life of a people. So, no one of the forces that influence life should be over emphasized. The subjects under Humanities are concerned with human culture.

It can studies studied in many ways. As a subject, it is divided into various sub-divisions. In short, the subject studies human race; human nature; humanness and benevolence etc. The various divisions and sub-divisions indicate a wide area of enquiry for which the subject Humanities has got the honour of an interdisciplinary social science. The study of man in relation with literature, folklore, cinema and performance and performing arts went under the fold of humanities.

It is clear that anthropologists get important help from this social science in different ways. Anthropology and literature 'Literature' is an umbrella term for poetry, fiction, drama and criticism. All these emanate from and get sustenance from the imagination. It appeals to the imagination too. Human emotions are mostly their subject matter and they mix pleasure with instruction or knowledge giving. Such writings have an artistic aspect to them. Literature is a wonderful domain which functions in a wonderful area and works in the imaginative field.

It gives us joy, laughter, sadness, wisdom, thought etc. Literature helps us to relax giving us a perspective on life.

It also gives us a picture of life. Written literature is not available among the primitive societies.

The Relationship of Sociology with Other Social Sciences

Rather they existed in the form of folklores. These folklores show that they possess a good knowledge about the subject matter, characters and style of a story. In dormitories, young boys and girls listen to various kinds of folklores which contain important information about the origin of their tribe; about the origin of creation; about the mutual relations among men and women; about the origin of various social institutions and about many other things.

It is through the medium of these folklores that the folk literature of the primitive societies is verbally communicated from one generation to another.

Anthropology and Folklore Folklore has an important place in every primitive culture. It is through the medium of folklores that the culture of a primitive society is transmitted from one generation to the next generation. How the world was evolved is a theme of many folklores of existing tribes. In most of the folklores, a reference to the mutual relation of the people and their gods is given.

Various folklores aim at socialization and point out how different offences are punished by the supernatural powers in different ways.

Descriptions about birds, animals and the trees, besides human beings are given in these folklores. In various primitive folklores of India it has been shown how man depends on plants and animals. Very interesting folklores about the origin of different tribes are available at present. One of the interesting folklores of this kind is found in the Ho tribe.

There are various versions of this myth in different tribes. The folk-lore relating to the origin of creation is prevalent in a different manner in Kamar tribe.

relationship of sociology and anthropology to other social science

God Mahadeo was once so annoyed by a mad jackal that he ordered the destruction of the world. An old woman overheard the curse, told her husband about it and the two together went to forest and hastily improvised a house boat and loaded it with all necessities of life to last for twelve years.

Then they placed their young son and daughter in the boat soon after a deluge overtook the world drowning the whole of mankind and also the earth. After twelve years, Mahadeo's anger subsided and he sent out his attendants to recreate the world. The young boy and girl were discovered and Mahadeo adopted them as his children.

Some earth was procured from the teeth of an earth-worm and the earth was created again. The boy and the girl lived on this earth.

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Several children were born out of the union. Mahadeo divided these children into various pairs and each pair became the progenitor of a caste or tribe. It becomes clear from the folklore described above and prevalent in various Indian tribes, that the folklores are more imaginative and entertaining than awe-inspiring.

Their main function appears to entertain their listeners. A good number of similarities are found in most of the folklores of the world and their subject matter is very much alike. Many hundred events are described in different ways in different folklores.

Much folklore like the story of Oedipus and Cinderella found in western tribes are also found in primitive societies of India. In this way, folklores are important means to understand human culture. Anthropology and Cinema Cinema is an expression of stories, plays or drama on screen. Indian cinema has become a full-fledged industry with actors, producers, writers, technical persons becoming profession for livelihood.

However, there has been an evolution of a parallel cinema which explores themes of discrimination, social injustice and gender issues in a powerful way. Little attention was paid to a scientific study of the cinema of the Indian tribes. Cinema depicting tribal arts are on the decline everywhere in India because of confused judgments.

The Relationship of Sociology with Other Social Sciences

Open condemnation of tribal cultures, or an implicit disapproval conveyed through 'uplift' movements have been induced to the minds of the Indian tribal folk distrust in and in some cases even distaste for their cultural traditions. The repository folk-music and the folk-dances of India could be for enrichment and inspiration for India's modern film artists. It is encouraging to note that dance and music performances by invited representatives of various Indian tribes now became a regular item of the official programme for the annual Republic Day celebration at New Delhi.

There are various aspects uplift standard of the everyday life of the Indian tribals. There are poverty, disease and ignorance among the tribals of India. Yet a lot has to be preserved and nourished for the good of the country as a whole such as tribal 'art' films. The concepts and methods of anthropology should be designed to secure an understanding of the tribal culture, the function of which is to secure human survival. But, the problem is, 'How exactly and in what form was anthropology to make its contributions?

Anthropology and Art The search of beauty is an eternal craving of mankind. This urge does not always satisfy the material needs; rather it brings satisfaction to the mind and the eye. The impulse arises out of an aesthetic sense. Every individual respond to it in some way or the other.

Art is, therefore, a product of a deep- rooted human urge and has been integrated with the life of the people as an instinct since the early days of human existence. The nature and style of art vary from culture to culture. As culture regulates the patterns of behavior in a society, it revolves round the specific beliefs and feelings. Therefore, cultural variations in artistic expression are quite natural.

As per our modern outlook, we generally want an artist to be original and innovative. In general, artists are swayed by the creativity in their own style of creation. Often they are more appreciated by the show of their originality. Similarly Sociology also takes the help from economics. Economics greatly enriches sociological knowledge. An economic factor greatly influences each and every aspects of social life. Knowledge and research in the field of economics greatly contributes to sociology.

Each and every social problem has an economic cause. For the solution of social problems like dowry, suicide etc. Sociologists take the help from economics. Marx opines economic relations constitute the foundation of Society. Economic factors play a very important role in every aspect of our social life that is why Sociologists concerned with economic institutions. For this reason Sociologists like Spencer, Weber, Durkheim and others have taken the help from economics in their analysis of social relationships.

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Thus both sociology and economics are very closely related with each other. There are some problems which are being studied by both sociologists and economists. Economic changes results in social changes and vice versa. However, inspite of the above closeness, inter-relationship and inter-dependence both the sciences have certain differences which are described below: Hence it is closely related to other social sciences and so also with psychology.

Sociology and Psychology are very closely interlinked interrelated and interdependent. Relationship between the two is so close and intimate that Psychologist like Karl Pearson refuses to accept both as special science. Both depend on each other for their own comprehension. Their relationship will be clear if we analyze their inter-relationship and mutual dependency. Sociology is a science of social phenomena and social relationship.

It is a science of social group and social institutions. It is a science of collective behavior. It studies human behavior in groups. But psychology is a science of mind or mental processes. It is a science of human behavior. It analyses attitudes, emotions, perception, process of learning and values of individuals and process of personality formation in society. Sociology receives help from Psychology. There are many psychologists like Freud, MacDougal and others who have enrich Sociology in many respects.

They opines that the whole social life could be reduced finally to psychological forces. Each and every social problems and social phenomenon must have a psychological basis for the solution of which sociology requires the help from psychology. A new branch of knowledge has developed with the combination of sociology and psychology which is known as social psychology.

Similarly, psychology depends on Sociology to comprehend itself fully.

relationship of sociology and anthropology to other social science

Psychology also requires help from sociology in many cases. As human mind and personality is being influenced by social environment, culture, customs and traditions hence psychology take the help from Sociology to understand this.

To understand human nature and behaviour properly psychology depends on sociology. There are many Psychological problems which must have a Social Cause.

Psychology requires the help from Sociology to understand these social problems. A research in Sociology richly contributes to psychology. Contributions and theories of many Sociologists also are of great help to Psychologists. Thus Sociology and Psychology are mutually dependent on each other. Besides there are some common area of study such as social disorganization, public opinion etc. Social Psychology a branch of Psychology is developed with the combination of the two.

In the words of Kretch and Crutchfield Social Psychology is the science of behaviour of the individuals in society. However, inspite of the mutual relationship and dependence both the sciences differ from each other in the following ways. Sociology is the mother of all social sciences. Hence it has close and intimate relationship with Anthropology. The relationship is so close that Anthropologists like A. Kroeber consider Sociology and Anthropology as twin sisters.

They often appear as two names for the same subject. Reddfield recognizes the closeness between these two social sciences. It studies behavior of man in groups. Hence Sociology is concerned with the association of human beings.

It is a science that deals with social groups. Accordingly anthropology means study of man. As a science of man it deals with man, his works and behavior. Anthropology studies the biological and cultural development of man.

Anthropology has a wide field of study which can be broadly divided into three main divisions such as physical anthropology. Archeology cultural anthropology and social anthropology. Physical anthropology studies bodily characteristics of early man and thereby try to understand both primitive and modern cultures. Archeology studies cultures of pre-historic period.

This study facilitates sociologists to make a comparative study of present social structure. It is concerned with the early periods of human existence. It reconstructs the origin, spread and evolution of culture by examining the remains of the past societies.

Social anthropology deals with the behaviour of man in social institutions. Social anthropology and sociology are one and the same. Evan Pritchard considers social anthropology as a branch of Sociology. Due to the small number of positions expected to be available, the BLS warns that competition among applicants will be extremely stiff. Most anthropologist positions require a master's or doctoral degree. Anthropologists occupy positions in a variety of academic and nonacademic environments.

Anthropologists serve as college faculty, program directors with government and nonprofit agencies or museum curators. Some anthropologists secure jobs working with police departments to assist with identifying mysterious or unknown remains. A study commissioned by The American Anthropological Association titled, "The Changing Face of Anthropology," indicated that 30 percent of the anthropology majors surveyed revealed they are working in positions that require education related to the discipline.

Careers in Sociology Employment for sociologists is expected to grow by 18 percent from to The number of available jobs will far exceed applicants.