Parallel time and space relationship

Parallel universes in fiction - Wikipedia

parallel time and space relationship

'Parallel universes DO exist': Multiple versions of us are living in . The moment professor hears ripples in space time have been discovered. A parallel universe or alternative reality is a hypothetical self-contained separate universe' is more general, without any connotations implying a relationship, of time-space travel are still being investigated, and possibilities are growing. A parallel universe is a hypothetical self-contained reality co-existing with one's own. A specific The term "parallel universe" is more general, without implying a relationship, or lack of relationship, with our own universe. . both time and parallel universes; "Add a fourth dimension to space, and there is room for an indefinite.

Scoured for gravitational waves and signs of collisions with other universes. Since we can only observe four dimensions: To be able to use the theory to explain the physical phenomena we see, these extra dimensions have to be "compactified" by being curled up in such a way that they are too small to be seen.

Perhaps for each point in our large four dimensions, there exists six extra indistinguishable directions? A problem, or some would say, a feature, of string theory is that there are many ways of doing this compactification — possibilities is one number usually touted about.

Each of these compactifications will result in a universe with different physical laws — such as different masses of electrons and different constants of gravity. However there are also vigorous objections to the methodology of compactification, so the issue is not quite settled.

parallel time and space relationship

But given this, the obvious question is: String theory itself does not provide a mechanism to predict that, which makes it useless as we can't test it. But fortunately, an idea from our study of early universe cosmology has turned this bug into a feature.

The early universe During the very early universe, before the Big Bang, the universe underwent a period of accelerated expansion called inflation.

Time Travel and Parallel Universes: A Scientist Vs. a Literature Professor

Inflation was invoked originally to explain why the current observational universe is almost uniform in temperature. However, the theory also predicted a spectrum of temperature fluctuations around this equilibrium which was later confirmed by several spacecraft such as Cosmic Background ExplorerWilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the PLANCK spacecraft. While the exact details of the theory are still being hotly debated, inflation is widely accepted by physicists.

However, a consequence of this theory is that there must be other parts of the universe that are still accelerating. However, due to the quantum fluctuations of space-time, some parts of the universe never actually reach the end state of inflation. This means that the universe is, at least according to our current understanding, eternally inflating. Some parts can therefore end up becoming other universes, which could become other universes etc.

This mechanism generates a infinite number of universes. By combining this scenario with string theory, there is a possibility that each of these universes possesses a different compactification of the extra dimensions and hence has different physical laws. Testing the theory The universes predicted by string theory and inflation live in the same physical space unlike the many universes of quantum mechanics which live in a mathematical spacethey can overlap or collide. Indeed, they inevitably must collide, leaving possible signatures in the cosmic sky which we can try to search for.

The exact details of the signatures depends intimately on the models — ranging from cold or hot spots in the cosmic microwave background to anomalous voids in the distribution of galaxies. Nevertheless, since collisions with other universes must occur in a particular direction, a general expectation is that any signatures will break the uniformity of our observable universe.

  • Parallel universes in fiction

These signatures are actively being pursued by scientists. Wave functions for single electrons are called orbitals. The plots show isosurfaces of a few wave functions. In a similar way, physicists and physical chemists have been able to compute the table of elements with the possible stable elements in this Universe.

The theory of parallel universes is not just maths – it is science that can be tested

This is known as the Heisenberg uncertainty principle after the scientist who formulated it. For example, if the position of a particle is known exactly, its momentum cannot be determined at the same time. In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse occurs when the position or momentum is observed. This can also be explained by decoherence when a particle interacts with its environment.

Time Travel and Parallel Universes: A Scientist Vs. a Literature Professor

This means that when a particle is measured, the wave function no longer describes it or appears to no longer describe it, according to decoherence and the particle will be found in only one place. However, the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanicsinitially formulated by Everett, denies the collapse of the wave function. Instead, it derives many possible parallel universes, where all of the possible linear combinations superpositions of the wave function are expressed.

The Universe would be composed of a quantum superposition of very many, possibly non-communicating, parallel universes or quantum worlds. Eternal Inflation The theory of inflation describes the beginning of the Big Bang as an extremely small inflating lump of substance, much smaller than an atom in volume.

parallel time and space relationship

The little lump of substance doubled in mass, at constant density, in regular intervals of about seconds. This took place around times and created all of the mass in our Universe in about seconds!

parallel time and space relationship

Compare that to the mass of the hydrogen atom, which is about 1. As a comparison, the Nagasaki bomb converted 1 g of mass to different types of energy. This would explain why gravity has negative energy, i. Eternal inflation also predicts that what we call the Universe is only one of an infinite number of Hubble volumes in an infinite universe — Hubble volumes created by eternal inflation.

The theory of parallel universes is not just maths – it is science that can be tested

These Hubble volumes are similar to our Hubble volume but with different cosmic structures. Regions of space that now contain galaxies were smaller than an atom, where quantum effects were relevant.

parallel time and space relationship

Some Hubble volumes in an infinite universe with an infinite number of Hubble volumes could be identical or almost identical to our Hubble volume that we call the Universe. Most Hubble volumes have different distribution of matter compared to ours, but since there is an infinite number of them, there could also be an almost infinite number of variants of Hubble volumes that are of the same material distribution. There could also be an almost infinite number of variants of worlds that are identical or almost identical to our world.

Unifying Multiverses The many-world interpretation of quantum mechanics leads to an almost infinite number of universes expressing an almost infinite number of what MIT cosmologist Max Tegmark calls Level III parallel universes.

In a similar fashion, inflation theory may predict an infinite number of Hubble volumes, forming the Level I multiverse according to Tegmark, author of the book Our Mathematical Universe.