April NASCAR News Archive
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There are 41 cars on the preliminary entry list for Saturday's Spark Energy at Talladega Superspeedway. See the complete list on the Talladega entry list page. And, great seating options are still available.
Fox earned a 1. And only nine races into the season - that's happened twice already. Kevin Harvick accomplished the feat a month ago, winning three consecutive races at Atlanta, Las Vegas and Phoenix. Following last year's historic rollout of Ale, Charlotte Motor Speedway's first craft beer, the speedway and Cabarrus Brewing Company turned things up a notch on Monday with the unveiling of Redneck Hill - a spectacular, smooth, American Ale.
The Scoring Tower demolition was a key moment in the track's renovation project. Busch streaked away from the rest of the field on a series of late restarts, ultimately beating Chase Elliott to the checkered flag in overtime to record his fifth victory at the. The win is his 3rd win of5th win at Richmond and 46th career win. Pole winner Truex, Jr. Stages 1 and 2 were both won by Logano. We also use persistent cookies in areas of its web site you must register, and you are able to customize the information you see, so that you don't have to enter your preferences more than once.
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The course that colonialism took in Madagascar strengthened their domination of the political and intellectual life of the island. Resentment of the Merina and their dominant position by the other ethnic groups is still a source of social unrest.
The Indo-Pakistani community is commonly referred to as the Karana. There were about 20, Karana in the country in There are also significant numbers of French, Creole, and Comoran peoples. Malagasy is a Malayo-Polynesian language which has different but mutually intelligible dialects and is spoken throughout Madagascar.
The Merina dialect has come to be considered the standard literary form of the language. Instruction in French is preferred by the coastal peoples, as it avoids connotations of Merina cultural dominance. Although there are many variations in detail, nearly all of these traditional Malagasy share certain basic religious ideas, the central one being belief in the soul and its immortality.
Besides the almighty Andrianahary or Zanaharysecondary divinities are recognized, especially the earliest inhabitants of the island Vazimbalegendary kings and queens, and other great ancestors. The burial places and other places of special significance in the lives of these secondary deities are objects of veneration and pilgrimages, during which special rites are performed.
Christianity was introduced to the Malagasy in the early 19th century, and it is influenced to a large extent by traditional beliefs. There is also a small number of Hindus among the Indian population. The constitution allows for freedom of religion and this right is generally respected in practice. The Malagasy Council of Christian Churches is an organization of Roman Catholic, Reformed, Lutheran, and Anglican officials that participate in a number of national programs addressing a wide variety of political and social issues.
These run from Toamasina to Antananarivo, with a branch from Moramanga to Lake Alaotra; from Antananarivo to Antsirabe; and from Fianarantsoa to Manakara on the east coast. There are about 49, km 30, mi of motor roads on the island, of which 5, km 3, mi were paved in The road from Antananarivo to Fianarantsoa is tarred, as are portions of the other main routes.
Inthere were 70, passenger automobiles and 43, commercial vehicles in use. There are at least 13 other ports, engaged mainly in coastal trade. There was considerable freight traffic along the Pangalanes Canal, which runs parallel to the east coast from Toamasina to Farafangana for a distance of km mi. The canal was closed inhowever, because of silting. However, dredging had begun by Inthere were an estimated airports, 29 of which had paved runways as of The principal international airport is at Ivato, near Antananarivo.
Air Madagascar, which is owned partly by Air France, also services internal locations. Inaboutpassengers were carried on domestic and international flights. This wave of immigration continued for at least 1, years, and there was also an influx of African peoples. Additional immigrants from Africa, Arabiaand the Persian Gulf and, much later, from Europe, India, and China did little more than supplement a fully settled population.
The earliest written histories of the Malagasy are the sorabe, in the Malagasy language using Arabic script. A Portuguese ship sighted the island and sailed along the coast in Inthe island was named Madagascar by the Portuguese, after the island of the same name originally reported by Marco Polo.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, attempts were made by the Portuguese, British, Dutch, and French to establish settlements. All these efforts failed, and Madagascar became the lair of pirates who lived on Nosy Sainte Marie and intermarried with the Malagasy.
Among the Malagasy themselves, three main kingdoms appeared: Under King Andrianampoinimerina r. Andrianampoinimerina was succeeded in by Radama I, his son, under whose guidance the Merina kingdom extended its rule over the major portions of the island especially over the Betsimisaraka kingdom and the south.
Radama welcomed Europeans to assist in the modernization of the kingdom and to further his conquests. On Radama's death inhe was succeeded by his wife, Ranavalona I, whose hostility to the innovations in her husband's reign led to a persecution of the Malagasy Christians and eventually to the expulsion of the Europeans after an Anglo-French bombardment of Toamasina in Radama II, who succeeded his mother inwas sympathetic to the French but was murdered in Shortly after this, Rainilaiarivony, who was to become prime minister and consort to three successive queens, took control of the government.
The last three decades of Malagasy independence during the 19th century were marked by continued attempts of those opposed to innovation to undermine the prime minister 's authority. He therefore slowed modernization and tried to retain independence by seeking British friendship against the French. The latter claimed a protectorate over parts of the Sakalava kingdom by virtue of treaties made inand disputes over this claim and over French properties on the island resulted in a war in which was ended in by a treaty giving the French control over Merina foreign policy.
The British recognized the French position under the terms of the Anglo-French Agreement ofin exchange for French recognition of a British protectorate over Zanzibar. This exchange cleared the way for the French annexation of Madagascar in Malagasy resistance, especially in the south, was not finally overcome untilhowever. The impress of his policies remained substantial until the end of World War II.
His successors, career colonial officials, struggled to promote economic growth, but World War Isubsequent economic difficulties in France, and the prolonged depression of the s, together with the absence of easily exploitable resources, the distance of Madagascar from its main markets, and the shortage of labor, combined to impede their efforts.
During World War IIthe Vichy French retained control of Madagascar until it was occupied in by British troops to prevent its naval facilities from being used by the Japanese. InFrench administration was restored under Gen. Madagascar became a French overseas territory in All Malagasy thus became French citizens, but only a limited number were accorded the franchise mainly those with some education or experience of European ways in the French civil services or armed forces.
A Territorial Assembly was established, with some control of the budget. It was composed entirely of members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies. Although the latter had a majority of the seats in both provincial and territorial assemblies, the number of seats assigned to the metropolitan electorate was most disproportionate to its numerical strength.
This system was denounced by the nationalists, who had secured a majority of the Malagasy seats in the Territorial Assembly as well as the three Malagasy seats in the French National Assembly.
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In Marcha rebellion broke out, and for a time the French lost control of the east coast. Europeans and loyal Malagasy were murdered and roads cut. The suppression of the rebellion required substantial forces and took more than a year.
Loss of life was estimated at 11, The nationalist movement was disrupted by the rebellion and subsequent repressions, but was not destroyed. A period of reform beginning in resulted in abolition of the dual electorate system, placed Malagasy in important government positions, and led to the rebirth of serious political activity.
The End of French Rule In the referendum of 28 SeptemberMadagascar overwhelmingly voted for the new French constitution and became an autonomous republic in the new French Community. As the Malagasy Republic, it became a sovereign independent nation on 26 June and on 20 September was elected to UN membership.
The constitution that was adopted in October and amended in June provided Madagascar with a strong presidential form of government. The president, Philibert Tsiranana, remained in power until Maywhen there were riots throughout Madagascar.
The protests were led by a nationalist, leftist coalition of students, teachers, laborers, and urban unemployed. The repression that followed these demonstrations led to the fall of the Tsiranana government on 18 May. Gabriel Ramanantsoa was immediately asked to form a nonpolitical "government of national unity," which was composed of 11 ministers 5 military and 6 civilian. Ramanantsoa effectively destroyed the coalition by raising the minimum wages, providing strike pay, annulling the head and cattle taxes, prosecuting corrupt officials, and introducing price and currency controls.
The new government also broke diplomatic ties with South Africaestablished relations with the Communist bloc, withdrew from the franc zone, and arranged for the withdrawal of French military forces under new cooperation agreements with France.
On 5 Februaryfollowing a period of social and ethnic unrest, Ramanantsoa was replaced as head of state by Col. Richard Ratsimandrava, who was assassinated in an attempted coup six days later. A military Directorate composed of 18 officers was immediately formed and assumed all governmental authority. The Directorate was superseded on 13 June by the all-military Supreme Council of the Revolution, headed by Didier Ratsiraka, who had been minister of foreign affairs in the Ramanantsoa government.
Ratsiraka was installed as president on 4 Januarythus remaining head of state. The new regime accelerated growing state control of the economy, and Madagascar turned to the former USSR and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for military aid. Byhowever, growing economic difficulties forced Ratsiraka to develop closer ties with the West. Unemployment, inflation, and scarcities of basic foodstuffs caused serious rioting and social unrest in the early s.
Ratsiraka was elected to a new term as president on 7 November During —87, the government was shaken by student protests against educational reforms, rioting in the port of Toamasina, attacks on Indo-Pakistani enterprises in four major urban centers, and famine in the south because of food-supply problems. By earlythe governing coalition appeared to be unraveling. On May Dayfour of the parties called for the resignation of the government and early elections. Democratization Unleashed In Julyafter seven weeks of pro-democracy protests, Ratsiraka finally agreed to dissolve the cabinet and begin talks with the opposition.
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He also offered to hold a referendum on a new constitution by the end of Although he rejected demonstrators' demands that he resign, Ratsiraka released Albert Zafy, a popular opponent, and offered to form a coalition government with opposition leaders. Protests continued, and government troops fired on demonstrators in Antananarivo, killing as many as In August, Ratsiraka asked his prime minister, Guy Willy Razanamasy, to form a new government and to "install democracy.
Ratsiraka's Revolutionary Supreme Council stepped down from power. The democratization process survived an attempted coup on 29 Julyled by a faction of the Active Forces known as the Lifeblood Committee. On 19 Augusta new constitution was approved by national referendum. Ratsiraka's supporters interfered with the voting, seeking greater provincial autonomy. However the interior peoples, especially the Merina, strongly supported the new constitution.
This was followed on 25 November by a presidential election, which a team of foreign observers deemed free and fair. Zafy defeated Ratsiraka, but without an absolute majority. The president was installed in March, amid violent confrontations between Ratsiraka's supporters and government forces.
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Parliamentary elections were held in June for the new National Assembly. Twenty-five parties won representation with Zafy's Forces Vives FV taking the largest block of seats— Eight parties had more than five seats. Communal territorial elections, the first step in creation of the Senate, were held in Novemberbut President Zafy's day in the sun was short-lived. He was impeached in Septemberand then defeated by Ratsiraka in competitive elections in December An extensive revision of the constitution was approved narrowly in a March constitutional referendum.
International observers found the conduct of the referendum generally free and fair, but problems involving the compilation of voter lists, distribution of electoral cards, and other issues led to charges of fraud and manipulation.
The revised constitution reduced checks and balances and strengthened the presidency at the expense of the National Assembly. Parliamentary elections held in May generally were free and fair, but there were credible complaints of electoral fraud.
In Novembermunicipal elections were held for 1, mayoral posts and 20, council seats. After 29 years of dormancy, the Senate reconvened in May However, a national crisis ensued following the 16 December presidential election when challenger Marc Ravalomanana claimed to have won the election outright over incumbent Didier Ratsiraka, thereby eliminating the need for a run-off.
The official results gave Ravalomanana Albert Zafy Rasalama claimed 5. With Ratsiraka refusing to step down, Ravalomanana and his supporters mounted strikes and protests culminating in Ravalomanana's siezure of the presidency in February Operating from his provincial fiefdom, Toamasina, Ratsiraka commanded his armed forces to lay siege to the capital, blowing up key bridges and cutting off foodstuffs and other critical supplies.
The violence resulted in more than 70 deaths.
US recognition of Ravalomanana in June was followed by international approval, forcing Ratsiraka in July to seek exile in France ending seven months of political and economic chaos in the country.
Ravalomanana's first 18 months in power were marked by his consolidation of power, which was countered by a reorganization of opposition parties. None of the opposition parties, however, presented a serious challenge to Ravalomanana's power.
Indeed, the president's first moves were to punish supporters of the old government including the last prime minister, Andrianarivo, who was detained and put on trial. However, under pressure from Zafy's forces, Ravalomanana pardoned those serving sentences of less than three years and invited others to apply for amnesty.
The influential Madagascar Council of Churches led the movement for reconciliation resulting in broad support for compromise.
In Decemberthe president's party, Tiako-I-Madagasikara TIM dominated national assembly elections, but in the November municipal polls, TIM's opponents gained 18 of 45 of the most important mayoral posts up for election. The results speak to the importance of local power bases in Madagascar. Internationally, Ravalomanana was able to restore donor confidence in the economy, largely through the leadership of his prime minister, Jacques Sylla.
Gradually, the administration established productive relations with African states that were expected to lead to Madagascar's admission to the Southern Africa Development Community SADC.