Embassy translation follows of letter from Khrushchev to President delivered And that must be clear to us, people invested with authority, trust, and responsibility. . I am not speaking for Fidel Castro, but I think that he and the Government of. relationship with Fidel Castro's revolutionary leadership after it seized power in Nikita S.] Khrushchev is understood correctly and with trust. Amongst the. The son of a wealthy landowner, Fidel Castro turned his back on a life of It took just two years for the relationship to unravel as Castro nationalized swaths of the economy and In an Oct. 26 cable to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, Castro seemed Our Standards:The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
That first halting step. Contact has been established! A long, frustrating, tension-filled, but exciting experience lies ahead. Howard, Castro and a handful of U. She persuaded her superiors at ABC to let her return to Cuba to do another TV special—this time on life under the revolution. When she informed the new administration about her trip, White House staff responded that they would be interested in what Castro had to say. She was a diplomat—albeit a self-appointed one. While filming the new TV special, she would also be strategizing with Castro about how to renew his delicate diplomacy with President Lyndon B.
There was another reason she was eager to be in Havana. As much as Howard believed Castro was a dictator, the overwhelming public adoration he generated impressed her. There is no doubt in my mind that the emotion Fidel inspires in all women is sheer undiluted sexual desire. He is the most physical animal man I have ever known.
One night, Howard returned to her suite and burst into tears, torn between her feelings for the man and her distaste for his revolution. And why do I feel that I must? Yet I guess what keeps me involved is that down deep I believe that if I could convince him of the truth … of the despair and agony and chaos he has brought to this Island … he would change.
During their formal ABC interview in the wee hours of February 13, Howard posed a question to which she already knew the answer: What leads you to believe that? I do not want to speak about now. The Cuban leader lay down on the sofa and put his head in her lap. Lounging on the couch, they strategized about how to entice Johnson to finish the dialogue Kennedy had started. The United States would stop backing sabotage raids into Cuba led by Cuban exiles in Florida and halt its effort to roll back the Cuban revolution.
In return, Cuba would end its efforts to export revolution to other areas of Latin America. Castro also said he would do what he could to ensure Johnson was elected in Novemberrather than face the prospect of a hard-line Republican such as Senator Barry Goldwater as president. And when she emerged from the bathroom in a nightgown and pajamas, he chastised her for disobeying him.
As Castro explained why he was reluctant to sleep with her, he asked Howard: Do you want my body? But that is more interesting. I could love a girl like you very deeply. With the memorandum in hand, Howard placed a call to Gordon Chase at the NSC, now her contact in the new administration, and told him she had a confidential message for Johnson.
Cuba–Soviet Union relations - Wikipedia
She was struck by how much the Cuban people adored their leader. Second, because of her influence with Fidel, she probably regards herself, somewhat romantically, as fated to play a historical role in helping to bring about an agreement between the U. Third, she probably is a sincere, anti-communist, libertarian democrat who regards the Cuban scene as a tragedy and who wants to see the island living in the Western tradition and at peace with the U.
To go out on a dangerous limb, my own estimate is that as long as she can feel useful, the last two motives control the first. Each time, Chase gently put her off and tried to persuade her to entrust the message to him, which she declined to do.
Late in the evening on June 5,she went to see Stevenson at his room in the Waldorf Astoria. The two discussed how to persuade Johnson to continue dialogue with Cuba. But she also carried a high-level warning from the White House: Castro arranged for Howard to stay in one of the confiscated mansions that now served as a protocol house. The house came with a Cadillac and chauffeur, a butler and cook, air-conditioned bedrooms and a sunken bathtub. Coast Guard seizing Cuban fishing boats.
Cuba's Fidel Castro made revolutionary mark on history
Renowned photographer Elliott Erwitt, who traveled with Howard and her film crew to photograph the trip, captured these more intimate moments as well. They stayed up till 5: They also discussed the U.
Castro promised to restrain himself during the election season. Though the other one is rather pleasant too … the frosting on the cake. To prevent future incidents between the United States in Cuba, Castro would rely on Howard to get messages to Stevenson and would count on his response, passed through her. Less than two days after she returned to the states, Castro used this channel to address a crisis at Guantanamo, where a U.
Marine had reportedly shot a Cuban soldier. He wonders if it is part of a deliberate plan of provocation or an isolated act. She told him what Castro had said about reconnaissance planes and asked for an answer on the shooting. He will use utmost restraint and we can relax.
But the White House wasted no time shutting her out. Fidel Castro leads the Cuban revolution to power. President Dwight Eisenhower severs diplomatic relations with Cuba. Kennedy declares a broad economic embargo against Cuba, prohibiting all trade. The United States and the Soviet Union confront the prospect of nuclear war during the Cuban missile crisis.
Lisa Howard travels to Havana and interviews Castro, the first interview he has granted to a U. TV journalist since Howard travels to Cuba a third time, as a secret emissary, to advance a dialogue between Castro and the Johnson White House. It is unknown whether that message was ever delivered, but after Julythe Johnson administration appears to have cut Howard out of the loop. There are no more memos about contacts between Howard and Castro—and no more diary entries about communications with the White House.
As for official communications with Cuba, U. She shepherded Guevara around town—together they attended a premiere of a new documentary film commemorating the life of Kennedy—and organized a soiree for him at her New York apartment. But State Department officials refused to authorize a Stevenson-Guevara meeting for fear it would quickly leak to the press.
Howard did manage to persuade the progressive senator from Minnesota, Eugene McCarthy, to come to her cocktail party and talk to Guevara off in a corner.
But after debriefing him, U.
After the election, ABC fired her. I would not do that. During the July Republican National Convention in San Francisco, she received few assignments, and the interviews she did were not used on the evening news. Without warning, two weeks later ABC suspended Howard from her daily show. Less than a month later, she was fired. Her efforts to get ABC to reconsider failed, as did her attempts to get a job at another network.
In the late spring ofHoward suffered a miscarriage. Her ensuing depression resulted in a period of hospitalization that, sadly, failed to relieve her despondence. On July 4,while spending the holiday weekend in the Hamptons, Howard altered a prescription for 10 barbiturates and obtained a bottle of tablets at a local pharmacy; she consumed the pills in the parking lot and died of the overdose.
We have always regarded war as a calamity, and not as a game nor as a means for the attainment of definite goals, nor, all the more, as a goal in itself. Our goals are clear, and the means to attain them is labor. War is our enemy and a calamity for all the peoples. It is thus that we, Soviet people, and, together with US, other peoples as well, understand the questions of war and peace.
I can, in any case, firmly say this for the peoples of the Socialist countries, as well as for all progressive people who want peace, happiness, and friendship among peoples.
President, that you too are not devoid of a sense of anxiety for the fate of the world 2 understanding, and of what war entails. What [Page ] would a war give you? You are threatening us with war. But you well know that the very least which you would receive in reply would be that you would experience the same consequences as those which you sent us. And that must be clear to us, people invested with authority, trust, and responsibility. We must not succumb to intoxication and petty passions, regardless of whether elections are impending in this or that country, or not impending.
These are all transient things, but if indeed war should break out, then it would not be in our power to stop it, for such is the logic of war. I have participated in two wars and know that war ends when it has rolled through cities and villages, everywhere sowing death and destruction.
In the name of the Soviet Government and the Soviet people, I assure you that your conclusions regarding offensive weapons on Cuba are groundless. It is apparent from what you have written me that our conceptions are different on this score, or rather, we have different estimates of these or those military means.
Indeed, in reality, the same forms of weapons can have different interpretations. You are a military man and, I hope, will understand me. Let us take for example a simple cannon. What sort of means is this: A cannon is a defensive means if it is set up to defend boundaries or a fortified area.
Cuba's Fidel Castro made revolutionary mark on history | Reuters
But if one concentrates artillery, and adds to it the necessary number of troops, then the same cannons do become an offensive means, because they prepare and clear the way for infantry to attack. The same happens with missile-nuclear weapons as well, with any type of this weapon. You are mistaken if you think that any of our means on Cuba are offensive.
However, let us not quarrel now. It is apparent that I will not be able to convince you of this. But I say to you: President, are a military man and should understand: These missiles are a means of extermination and destruction. But one cannot attack with these missiles, even nuclear missiles of a power of megatons because only people, troops, can attack.
Without people, any means however powerful cannot be offensive. How can one, consequently, give such a completely incorrect interpretation as you are now giving, to the effect that some sort of means on Cuba are offensive.
All the means located there, and I assure you of this, have a defensive character, are on Cuba solely for the purposes of defense, and we have sent them to Cuba at the request of the Cuban Government. You, however, say that these are offensive means. President, do you really seriously think that Cuba can attack the United States and that even we together with Cuba can attack you from the territory of Cuba?
Can you really think that way? How is it [Page ] possible? We do not understand this. Has something so new appeared in military strategy that one can think that it is possible to attack thus. I say precisely attack, and not destroy, since barbarians, people who have lost their sense, destroy.
I believe that you have no basis to think this way. You can regard us with distrust, but, in any case, you can be calm in this regard, that we are of sound mind and understand perfectly well that if we attack you, you will respond the same way.
But you too will receive the same that you hurl against us. And I think that you also understand this.
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My conversation with you in Vienna gives me the right to talk to you this way. This indicates that we are normal people, that we correctly understand and correctly evaluate the situation.
Consequently, how can we permit the incorrect actions which you ascribe to us? Only lunatics or suicides, who themselves want to perish and to destroy the whole world before they die, could do this. We, however, want to live and do not at all want to destroy your country. We want something quite different: To compete with your country on a peaceful basis. We quarrel with you, we have differences on ideological questions. But our view of the world consists in this, that ideological questions, as well as economic problems, should be solved not by military means, they must be solved on the basis of peaceful competition, i.
We have proceeded and are proceeding from the fact that the peaceful co-existence of the two different social-political systems, now existing in the world, is necessary, that it is necessary to assure a stable peace. That is the sort of principle we hold. Our vessels, apparently, will soon enter the zone which your Navy is patrolling. I assure you that these vessels, now bound for Cuba, are carrying the most innocent peaceful cargoes.
Do you really think that we only occupy ourselves with the carriage of so-called offensive weapons, atomic and hydrogen bombs? Although perhaps your military people imagine that these cargoes are some sort of special type of weapon, I assure you that they are the most ordinary peaceful products.
President, let us show good sense. I assure you that on those ships, which are bound for Cuba, there are no weapons at all. The weapons which were necessary for the defense of Cuba are already there.
I do not want to say that there were not any shipments of weapons at all. No, there were such shipments. But now Cuba has already received the necessary means of defense. But I should like to have you believe in yourself and to agree that one cannot give way to passions; it is necessary to control them. And in what direction [Page ] are events now developing? If you stop the vessels, then, as you yourself know, that would be piracy.
If we started to do that with regard to your ships, then you would also be as indignant as we and the whole world now are. One cannot give another interpretation to such actions, because one cannot legalize lawlessness.
If this were permitted, then there would be no peace, there would also be no peaceful coexistence. We should then be forced to put into effect the necessary measures of a defensive character to protect our interests in accordance with international law. Why should this be done?