Ecological interactions (article) | Ecology | Khan Academy
The Biosphere, Biomes and Ecosystem Relationships. Class Notes The biosphere is the area surrounding the earth that can support life. The biosphere is. Once again, knowing the Latin root helps a lot: "vor" means "to eat or devour," as in Predation (+ -) is another winner-loser relationship but it is not symbiosis. An ecosystem includes all of the biotic and abiotic factors that are found in a given environment. A biome is a collection of A biome is a collection of different ecosystem that share similar climate conditions. Hope this helps!.
Some consumers are predators; they hunt, catch, kill, and eat other animals, the prey.
The prey animal tries to avoid being eaten by hiding, fleeing, or defending itself using various adaptations and strategies. These could be the camouflage of an octopus or a fawn, the fast speed of a jackrabbit or impala, or the sting of a bee or spines of a sea urchin. If the prey is not successful, it becomes a meal and energy source for the predator.
If the prey is successful and eludes its predator, the predator must expend precious energy to continue the hunt elsewhere. Predators can also be prey, depending on what part of the food chain you are looking at.
For example, a trout acts as a predator when it eats insects, but it is prey when it is eaten by a bear. It all depends on the specific details of the interaction. Ecologists use other specific names that describe what type of food a consumer eats: Omnivores eat both animals and plants. Once again, knowing the Latin root helps a lot: For example, an insectivore is a carnivore that eats insects, and a frugivore is an herbivore that eats fruit.
This may seem like a lot of terminology, but it helps scientists communicate and immediately understand a lot about a particular type of organism by using the precise terms. Not all organisms need to eat others for food and energy. Some organisms have the amazing ability to make produce their own energy-rich food molecules from sunlight and simple chemicals. Organisms that make their own food by using sunlight or chemical energy to convert simple inorganic molecules into complex, energy-rich organic molecules like glucose are called producers or autotrophs.
Some producers are chemosynthesizers using chemicals to make food rather than photosynthesizers; instead of using sunlight as the source of energy to make energy-rich molecules, these bacteria and their relatives use simple chemicals as their source of energy. Chemosynthesizers live in places with no sunlight, such as along oceanic vents at great depths on the ocean floor. No matter how long you or a giraffe stands out in the sun, you will never be able to make food by just soaking up the sunshine; you will never be able to photosynthesize.
Producers use the food that they make and the chemical energy it contains to meet their own needs for building-block molecules and energy so that they can do things such as grow, move, and reproduce.
All other life depends on the energy-rich food molecules made by producers — either directly by eating producers, or indirectly by eating organisms that have eaten producers.
Not surprisingly, ecologists also have terms that describe where in the food chain a particular consumer operates. A primary consumer eats producers e. And it can go even further: A single individual animal can act as a different type of consumer depending on what it is eating.
When a bear eats berries, for example, it is being a primary consumer, but when it eats a fish, it might be a secondary or a tertiary consumer, depending on what the fish ate! All organisms play a part in the web of life and every living thing will die at some point. This is where scavengers, detritivores which eat detritus or parts of dead thingsand decomposers come in. They all play a critical role that often goes unnoticed when observing the workings of an ecosystem.
They break down carcasses, body parts and waste products, returning to the ecosystem the nutrients and minerals stored in them. This interaction is critical for our health and health of the entire planet; without them we would be literally buried in dead stuff. Crabs, insects, fungi and bacteria are examples of these important clean-up specialists. Another category of interactions between organisms has to do with close, usually long-term interaction between different types of organisms.
Ecosystems are made of different communities. A community includes all the populations in an area. Population in made of the same species that live in the same area and make up a breeding group.
So populations are made of organisms. Organisms are made of cells, cells are made of atoms, and all atoms are made of matter. An ecosystem is an ecological unit that includes at the interacting parts of an environment in an area.
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- What is the relationship between the biosphere, a biome, and an ecosystem?
Ecosystems consist of abiotic and biotic factors. Abiotic factors are the nonliving components of an ecosystem. Abiotic factors can be divided into man-made and natural factors. Examples of man-made abiotic factors include automobiles, buildings, planes, boats, bridges, roads, cities and towns.
Examples of natural abiotic factors include sunlight, precipitation rain or snowtemperature, slope and drainage of the land erosionchemistry of soils and atmosphere, volcanic activity, earthquakes, and storms hurricanes, tornados, sand storms. Biotic factors are the living components of the ecosystem. Examples of biotic factors include plants, animals, protists, humans, bacteria, and all other living organisms. Biotic factors may interact with each other in 3 ways.
Science for Kids: World Biomes and Ecosystems
Competition for food, living space, or mates. The relationship between predators and prey. And finally in symbiosis. Abiotic and biotic factors can interact. For example climate and soil conditions determine which plants will live in a certain area. The availability of land for predators to hunt and live is affected by the increasing number of housing being built for humans. Biotic relationships are all the relationships among organisms living in a given area. There are 3 types of biotic relationships: Organisms interact through competition.
Competition is the use or defense of a resource by one individual that reduces the availability of that resource to other individuals. In other words, competition is the use or defense of food source, living space, or mates so that others cannot have it. There are two main types of competition: Intraspecific competition is the competition between organisms of the same species.
Ecosystems and biomes
Usually competing over mating rights. The male that wins the fight gets to mate and the loser has to fight a different male or wait another year to mate. This insures that the healthiest individual best adapted to their environment will pass on their genes to offspring at a greater rate than individual less fit. Intraspecific competition is one of the driving forces of evolution. Evolution is the change in a species over time. This change occurs by mutations that may occur that can cause a species to become better adapted to their environment.
Interspecific competition is competition between organisms of different species. Interspecific competition is often less intense than intraspecific competition because individuals of different species do not compete for exactly the same kinds of food, space, or mates. An example of interspecific competition is the competition between predators for the same kind of prey.
The competitive exclusion principle states that two competitors cannot coexist on the same limiting resource. Meaning that if the availability of a resource such as food decreases, two competitors cannot compete for that same resource. Both competitors will be negatively affected by the decrease resource.
Organisms can develop behavior to limit the effects of competition.