Meanwhile, the epidemiologic burdens of COPD and lung cancer are of concern—the relationship between COPD and lung cancer—and taking these results suggested that the deposition characteristics of the airway. This article reviews the relationship between COPD and lung cancer, and . The characteristics of lung cancer in patients with COPD are different from those. The overall survival and clinical characteristics were compared, and predictors of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are two leading are needed to clarify the relationship between COPD and lung cancer.
Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: From a clinical perspective
The normal decline in lung function with ageing is accelerated in patients with COPD leading to premature loss of lung function . Aging is principally driven by failure of organs to repair DNA damage by oxidative stress non-programmed aging and from telomere shortening as a result of repeated cell division programmed aging.
These defects are both present in COPD . Oxidative stress is a causative agent of both diseases Cigarettes contain approximately free radicals per puff including reactive nitrogen and oxygen species RNOS .
In addition to exogenous RNOS, mitochondrial respiration is a major source of RNOS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction is present in many cancers . RNOS damage cells through a number of mechanisms including DNA damage especially mitochondrial DNA lipid peroxidation, oxidation of amino acids and oxidation of inorganic enzyme co-factors.
Oxidative stress damages DNA The free radical hypothesis of aging proposes that RNOS drives the accumulation of cell and DNA damage  and elevated levels of oxidative stress are seen in many cancers .
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Oxidative stress drives cancer initiation through DNA damage: The number of somatic mutations, which lead to cancer, accumulates with age in part due to continuous RNOS exposure. Hydroxyl radicals and peroxinitrate are especially implicated in DNA damage  Fig. RNOS can lead to the degradation of proteins, including tumor suppressors leading to cell division and decreasing apoptosis and DNA repair .
Information on age, sex, smoking status, and histologic type was obtained from medical records. Adenocarcinoma was significantly more common in lung cancer patients without versus with COPD Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide [ 1 ].
Because of the lack of specific symptoms, most cases of lung cancer are diagnosed in the middle and late stages. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is a disease characterized by persistent airflow limitation.
The progressive development of such limited airflow and the presence of toxic gas particles or chronic inflammatory reaction enhancement in the airway and lungs can result in acute exacerbation of symptoms and complications affecting the severity of the disease and the prognosis of the individual.
The lungs are vulnerable to airborne environmental factors, and tobacco smoke in particular is implicated in lung inflammation [ 45 ]. A relationship between COPD and lung cancer is evident from epidemiological and clinical studies [ 67 ].
Smoking and other noxious particles, such as biofuel smoke, which cause inflammation of the lungs, are important causes of COPD, and smoking is the most common risk factor of COPD worldwide.
In addition, air pollution, occupational exposure, and indoor biofuel pollution are also major risk factors for COPD in many countries. The developments of COPD and lung cancer are related to similar genetic and biological characteristics [ 8 — 12 ]. In fact, lung cancer and COPD may represent different manifestations of the same disease, with the same underlying genetic predisposition, telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and premature aging [ 13 ].
The incidence of cancer increases with age [ 22 ], with the mean age of onset being 66 years [ 23 ]. COPD principally occurs in smokers above 40 years of age, and its incidence is 2.
The lifetime risks of developing lung cancer are Hence, both COPD and lung cancer are related to age, smoking, and sex. While many studies have explained the pathogenesis and relationship of coexisting COPD and lung cancer and the risk factors thereof, few studies have analysed the detailed clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer patients with COPD.
Accordingly, this study retrospectively analysed the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer patients with and without COPD, with the aim of determining the relationships between clinical characteristics and subtypes in lung cancer patients with COPD. We defined never smokers as adults who had never smoked or who had smoked fewer than cigarettes in their lifetime, former smokers as those who had smoked at least cigarettes but currently do not smoke, and current smokers as those who had smoked at least cigarettes in their lifetime and who currently smoke [ 26 ].
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer share a common etiological factor and usually coexist in everyday clinical practice. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and lung cancer share a common etiological factor cigarette smoking and usually coexist in everyday clinical practice.
The presence of emphysema in addition to other factors e.
The relationship between COPD and lung cancer
Clinical management of patients with coexistence of COPD and lung cancer requires a multidisciplinary oncology board that includes a pulmonologist.
Detailed evaluation lung function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise test and management inhaled drugs, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation of COPD should be taken into account for lung cancer treatment surgical approach, radiotherapy. Recently published worldwide statistics showed that it is also the leading cause of cancer death among men and the second cause of cancer death among women. Page 1 of 8.