Chlorofluorocarbons and ozone relationship problems

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

chlorofluorocarbons and ozone relationship problems

The Ozone Problem, CFC s and Alternatives This table shows the relationship between ozone loss and UV(B) increase for different positions of the Sun (i.e. "One must consider two issues: the mechanisms for mixing between the Ozone and nitrate radicals are even less effective at breaking down CFCs. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a group of compounds which contain the As VOCs, they may be slightly involved in reactions to produce ground level ozone, .

The symbol of Chicken Little claiming that "The sky is falling!

The Skeptics vs. the Ozone Hole | Weather Underground

The material appears to be written by the paper's own journalists, but is hardly changed from the press release. Predict dire economic consequences, and ignore the cost benefits. The Association of European Chemical Companies warned that CFC regulation might lead to "redesign and re-equipping of large sectors of vital industry However, the economic reality has been less dire.

The alternative technologies already adopted have been effective and inexpensive enough that consumers have not yet felt any noticeable impacts except for an increase in automobile air conditioning service costs " UNEP, These savings came from decreased UV light exposure to aquatic ecosystems, plants, forests, crops, plastics, paints and other outdoor building materials, and did not include the savings due to decreased health care costs.

The report concluded that because of the Montreal Protocol, there would be Find and pay a respected scientist to argue persuasively against the threat. Scorer blasted Molina and Rowland, calling them "doomsayers", and remarking, "The only thing that has been accumulated so far is a number of theories. But he has never published any scientific papers on the subject. Use non-peer reviewed scientific publications or industry-funded scientists who don't publish original peer-reviewed scientific work to support your point of view.

Articles published in traditional scientific journals undergo a process essential to good science--peer-review.

Global warming caused by chlorofluorocarbons, not carbon dioxide, new study says

The peer-review process starts when a prospective author submits their work to a journal. The editor of the journal reviews the article, and sends copies to three scientists who are experts in the field. These anonymous reviewers send their comments on errors that need correcting, omissions that need addressing, etc, back to the journal editor, who then asks the author to submit a revised article addressing the concerns of the reviewers.

After making revisions, the author submits the article back to the journal editor, who can then accept the article, reject it, or send it back for another round of review. The rigors of peer-review are such that a large percentage of submitted articles never get published in the scientific literature.

chlorofluorocarbons and ozone relationship problems

Inthe year Molina and Rowland were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery of the CFC-ozone depletion link, the House Science Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment began a series of hearings to revisit the issue of ozone depletion, where the issue of peer-review was brought up.

During the hearings, Representative John Doolittle, a California Republican, stated, "My own belief, is that the question is still very much open to debate Theories or speculation about this are not sufficient. We need science, not pseudo-science. Case Study 1 -- Stratospheric Ozone: Myth and Realities", th Congress, 1st session, September 20,Report no.

I found extremely misleading representations by the government and government officials that are not founded on sound science.

chlorofluorocarbons and ozone relationship problems

Can you give me an example of some peer-reviewed publications that you consulted in formulating your opinion that there's no [sound] science? Singer doesn't publish in peer-reviewed documents. There's a politics within the scientific community, where they're all too intimidated to speak out once someone has staked out a position And under this Congress, we're going to get to the truth and not just the academic politics.

And what I'm asking you, in your search for good science, is what peer-reviewed documentation did you use to come up with your decision? What good science did you rely on? I do not have that burden. He replied that he had not, because "Well, I just haven't been presented with the study of late. Elizabeth Whelan to support his criticism of peer-reviewed science.

The Skeptics vs. the Ozone Hole

But according to the Columbia Journalism Review, Dr. Whelan praises the nutritional value of fast food in her writings, and dismisses the links between fatty diets and heart disease--but receives funding from Burger King, Oscar Meyer, Frito Lay, and Land O' Lakes Kurtz, Unfortunately, our House Majority Leader is not the only one who relies on Dr. Fred Singer, the expert whom Representative Doolittle referred to, has testified before Congress numerous times, and is probably the most widely quoted skeptic on the ozone hole and global warming issues.

chlorofluorocarbons and ozone relationship problems

Singer cannot be considered an active scientist publishing in the peer-reviewed literature, or even an objective informed critic. Singer touts himself as having "published more than peer-reviewed scientific papers over the course of his career". Singer's contributions to atmospheric science have been essentially zero since A search for his relevant publications in the atmospheric sciences reveals two peer-reviewed pieces since Atmospheric researchers have determined the rates at which several CFCs react with hydroxyl radicals; the lifetimes for these CFCs with respect to hydroxyl radicals is approximately 80 years.

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In other words, if hydroxyl radicals were the only thing reacting with the CFCs, it would take 80 years to completely remove them from the atmosphere. That is a long time! In comparison, methanol, a component of some alternative fuels, has a lifetime with respect to hydroxyl radical reaction of just 17 days.

chlorofluorocarbons and ozone relationship problems

Ozone and nitrate radicals are even less effective at breaking down CFCs. Sherwood Rowland of the University of California at Irvine, who won a Nobel Prize for his work on atmospheric chemistry, answers: We had as many as 22 of them, but pared them down to the most frequently asked ones.

Although the CFC molecules are indeed several times heavier than air, thousands of measurements have been made from balloons, aircraft and satellites demonstrating that the CFCs are actually present in the stratosphere. The atmosphere is not stagnant. Winds mix the atmosphere to altitudes far above the top of the stratosphere much faster than molecules can settle according to their weight.

Gases such as CFCs that are insoluble in water and relatively unreactive in the lower atmosphere below about 10 kilometers are quickly mixed and therefore reach the stratosphere regardless of their weight.

Global warming caused by chlorofluorocarbons, not carbon dioxide, new study says

Much can be learned about the atmospheric fate of compounds from the measured changes in concentration versus altitude. For example, the two gases carbon tetrafluoride CF4, produced mainly as a by-product of the manufacture of aluminum and CFC CCl3F, used in a variety of human activities are both much heavier than air.

Carbon tetrafluoride is completely unreactive in the lower