Where the Brook & River Meet by Margie Gray
Brook definition: A brook is a small stream. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. a natural freshwater stream smaller than a river La Scala, Vienna and the Met since ()They will brook no argument, these people . by Margie Gray (Author) Far Above Rubies (Volume One): A Four Year High School Unit Study for. The Prairie Primer: Literature Based Unit Studies Utilizing the. Where the Brook & River Meet has 5 ratings and 0 reviews. Through varied, thought-provoking activities that stimulate interest and inquiry, they will exp.
Etymology[ edit ] The name derives from the Celtic languagealthough it may have even earlier roots. It is usually thought to mean "dark",  by analogy with the Sanskrit word tamas meaning darkness. Other possibilities are "slow-moving" or "flowing",  although the precise meaning is uncertain.
The tributaries arising in these locations are generally known as the Willenhall arm and the Oldbury arm of the Tame. However, some of its tributary streams, including Waddens Brook, rise as far to the west and north as Bilston and Wednesfield in the city of Wolverhampton. Much of the course of the river has been modified over the centuries, and the urban sections now run mainly through culverts or canalised channels.
Both arms of the Tame flow through the Black Country to their confluence at Bescoton the edge of Walsall. The Willenhall or Wolverhampton arm[ edit ] The northern arm is easily traced from Bentleynear Willenhall. Victorian Ordnance Survey maps trace the sources of the Tame further back, to the site of the old Stow Heath colliery, which is now Wolverhampton's East Park.
The stream runs invisibly but generally north-eastward through Stowlawn, and then cuts across the southern edge of Willenhall, appearing briefly among the warehouses, and picking up reinforcement from the Waddens Brook, which originates in Wednesfield. It appears definitively at Watery Lane and Noose Lane, even more so at Bentley, where it runs southward through the industrial part of Bentley, before turning south-eastward, following a realigned course alongside and beneath the M6 motorwayto Bescot.
The river is disclosed by the tiny area of reflection in the centre of the photograph - a small stream between overgrown banks, and almost inaccessible, although it forms the town's boundary. Despite the appearance at this point it here enters an area of heavy industry. The Willenhall Arm passes a large retail development at Axletree Way, Wednesbury, formerly a heavy industrial site. The Tame is completely screened from the road and pedestrian ways at this point, though only a few metres away.
The Oldbury arm[ edit ] The southern arm appears prominently close to Oldbury town centre, which gives it its name, but can be traced back to an industrial area at Titford, just west of the M5 motorwaybetween Whiteheath and Langley Green. It winds its way up through Langley and around the southern and eastern edges of Oldbury town centre, surfacing due south of Sandwell and Dudley railway stationfrom which point it remains mainly on the surface and is easily traced.
It then zig-zags across the southern and eastern parts of Wednesburyto meet the Willenhall or Wolverhampton arm at Bescot. At this point it is still only 1—2 metres wide if not in flood. During two measurements, the silica concentration ranged from 5.
River Tame, West Midlands - Wikipedia
The pH was measured to range from 4. The concentration of suspended solids ranged from 0 to milligrams per liter and the concentration of settleable solids ranged between 0 and 4 milligrams per liter. The concentration of water hardness ranged from 12 to milligrams per liter. It has a 2 percent chance of reaching 10, cubic feet per second and a 1 percent chance of reaching 13, cubic feet per second.
- Where the Brook & River Meet
- Mystic River
- Where the Brook and River Meet
The peak annual discharge has a 0. It has a 2 percent chance of reaching cubic feet per second and a 1 percent chance of reaching 12, cubic feet per second. According to Hollister, the stream appears to have been much larger in ancient times. His book also described Roaring Brook as being "the noisiest tributary of the Lackawanna". Additionally, numerous pondsreservoirsand water works are in the watershed.
River Hyndburn - Wikipedia
However, the lower reaches are mountainous, with steep, high hills and a narrow valley from Elmhurst downstream to Dunmore. The stream's channel is sinuousbut has retaining walls in its lower reaches. The stream flows past rock formations consisting of sandstoneshaleand conglomeratealong with some coal. It flows past some steep slopes and rock ledges in this reach. A wide gravel and sand bar and some dumped trash occurs along the stream.
The watershed mainly occupies the southeastern part of Lackawanna County. However, its source is in the quadrangle of Sterling. The stream also passes through the quadrangles of Olyphant and Moscow.
Its headwaters are situated immediately to the west of the watershed of the Lehigh River. Forested land comprises 70 percent of the watershed's upper reaches. Other land uses include high-density residential land and downtown commercial land. South Washington Avenue is located near the stream's mouth.
From the Hollister Dam to the Elmhurst Reservoir, 86 percent of its length is on private land. The remaining 14 percent is on private land that is open to access. Its identifier in the Geographic Names Information System is Rupert constructed the first sawmill in Moscow on Roaring Brook in It struggled at first, but by managed to get a contract to produce iron T rails for the New York and Lake Erie Railroad.
A sawmill was constructed over the stream in Covington Township in and the first gristmill in that township was built on Roaring Brook in the northeastern part of that township in The first bridge over the stream was built in Around this time, the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad followed the stream throughout much of its length and the Erie Railroad followed the stream from Elmhurst to its mouth.
It was also used as an industrial water supply by the Spencer Coal Company.
At the time, their populations were , 17,andrespectively. The river channel typically contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
They also occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are similar to braided rivers and are quite rare. They have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo.
The River Cam from the Green Dragon Bridge, Cambridge Britain A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. Inthe German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley that was created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can often easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved.
In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries.
Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will often be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain called the hyporheic zone.
For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may greatly exceed the visible flow. Subsurface streams Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caves or caverns.
Such rivers are frequently found in regions with limestone geologic formations. Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheetspermitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can even flow uphill.
Permanence of flow Main article: Intermittent river An intermittent river or ephemeral river only flows occasionally and can be dry for several years at a time.
These rivers are found in regions with limited or highly variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a highly permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter.
Such rivers are typically fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. Even in humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams generally moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotranspiration.
Normally-dry rivers in arid zones are often identified as arroyos or other regional names. The meltwater from large hailstorms can create a slurry of water, hail and sand or soil, forming temporary rivers. Topographical classification Rivers can generally be classified as either alluvialbedrockor some mix of the two. Alluvial rivers have channels and floodplains that are self-formed in unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sediments.
They erode their banks and deposit material on bars and their floodplains. Bedrock rivers form when the river downcuts through the modern sediments and into the underlying bedrock. This occurs in regions that have experienced some kind of uplift thereby steepening river gradients or in which a particular hard lithology causes a river to have a steepened reach that has not been covered in modern alluvium.
Bedrock rivers very often contain alluvium on their beds; this material is important in eroding and sculpting the channel. Rivers that go through patches of bedrock and patches of deep alluvial cover are classified as mixed bedrock-alluvial. Alluvial rivers can be further classified by their channel pattern as meandering, braided, wandering, anastomose, or straight.
The morphology of an alluvial river reach is controlled by a combination of sediment supply, substrate composition, discharge, vegetation, and bed aggradation. At the start of the 20th century William Morris Davis devised the " cycle of erosion " method of classifying rivers based on their "age". Although Davis's system is still found in many books today, after the s and s it became increasingly criticized and rejected by geomorphologists.
His scheme did not produce testable hypotheses and was therefore deemed non-scientific. A river with a steep gradient that has very few tributaries and flows quickly. Its channels erode deeper rather than wider.
Examples are the BrazosTrinity and Ebro rivers. A river with a gradient that is less steep than those of youthful rivers and flows more slowly. A mature river is fed by many tributaries and has more discharge than a youthful river.