Columbia River | river, North America | pugliablog.info
Lower Willamette River Wildlife Habitat Inventory, March ; Columbia Corridor . River does not meet water quality standards for bacteria, mercury, dioxin. The Willamette River Basin is the largest watershed in the state of Oregon, covering Periodically the ice dam would fail, resulting in a large catastrophic flood of ice- .. near today's Kelley Point where the Willamette River met the Columbia. Columbia River, largest river flowing into the Pacific Ocean from North America. It is exceeded in Major tributaries are the Kootenay, Snake, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Okanogan, Yakima, Cowlitz, and Willamette rivers. High flows occur in late.
With increasing elevation, shrub-steppe gives way to ponderosa pines and then to firs, larches, and other pines. More than half of the original shrub-steppe vegetation has been eliminated by grazing and farming. Cheatgrass has become a troublesome invader.Rivers on the rise: Columbia, Willamette levels climb
Greasewood and alkali salt grass dominate on poorly drained saline soils, while willows and black cottonwoods dominate along watercourses. West of the Cascades, forests of Douglas firs with hemlocks and western red cedars prevail in upland areas. Irrigated orchards flourish next to the Columbia River, in contrast to the scrub vegetation outside the cultivated area, central Washington, U.
Notable were the great runs of salmon and steelhead trout; populations of beavers, deer, elk, bears, and bighorn sheep; flocks of waterfowl and upland birds, including eagles, ospreys, hawks, and falcons; and numbers of western rattlesnakes. The ability of the region to sustain large populations of wildlife has been drastically reduced, especially for salmon and beavers. Bald eagles and peregrine falcons were once listed as endangered but have recovered in numbers throughout the region.
However, there has been continued concern over the declining number of salmon, despite the presence of fish ladders and other passage facilities designed to make possible the continued annual upstream run of spawning salmon beyond dams on the river. Economy Many controversies have marked the economic development of the Columbia River. The four lower dams on the Columbia, plus four more on the lower Snake, provide large navigation locks, and all are equipped with fish-passage facilities.
Water also is pumped from Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, the reservoir behind Grand Coulee Dam, for the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project, the largest single project of its kind in the Northwest and the first large-scale use of the Columbia River itself for irrigation. The first water delivery was made in to the designated lands, which previously had been covered by sagebrush and other desert vegetation.
A major share of the cost of this expensive project is being paid by the sale of the power generated at Grand Coulee Dam. All power plants along the system are connected by high-voltage, federally owned transmission lines, the backbone of a power network in which all utilities of the Pacific Northwest participate.
This system is linked with the power grid in the state of California and with the American Southwest; surplus Columbia River power is sold to the Southwest during the summer and Southwestern steam-generated power to the Northwest during the winter. History Numerous Native American peoples inhabited the Columbia River basin for several thousand years.
The Boston trader Robert Gray sailed up the Columbia in and named it for his ship. The American Lewis and Clark Expedition wintered at its mouth in andand an English geographer, David Thompsonexplored most of the river for the North West Companyreaching the mouth in —only to find that Fort Astoria was already being built by the Americans.
The upper basin was explored for the North West Company between and Library of Congress, Washington, D. Irrigation apparently was practiced at Fort Walla Walla near present-day Wallula, Washington by the early s and at the mission established in by Dr. Marcus Whitman at nearby Waiilatpu, and it was later extended to many tributary valleys east of the Cascade Range. Click image to enlarge Columbia River looking downstream from Kelley Point, with mouth of the Willamette River entering from left behind pilings.
In a lighthouse was constructed near today's Kelley Point where the Willamette River met the Columbia. In the lighthouse was electrified and no longer needed keepers to light the lantern or ring the fog bell. It was sold and moved during the s and burned during the s. Click image to enlarge Penny Postcard: Columbia River - Willamette River Lighthouse, ca.
The Columbia River - Willamette River, Oregon
Published by Portland Post Card Co. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka. From the Journals of Lewis and Clark Clark, November 4, This village contains about men of the Skil-loot nation Lewis and Clark camp on this prairie on their return] in which there is a pond [one of the many ponds which use to dot this area] opposit on the Stard.