What's the Blue Nile and the White Nile? - Times of India
“Tuti Island where the Blue Nile and the White Nile meet” . Nicely located in the river opposite one of the crudest areas in Khartoum, you can enjoy your tea or. Blue Nile and White Nile are two tributaries of the Nile that flow from the South into what is referred to as the Nile proper, the longest river in the. The main tributaries of the world's longest river meet in Khartoum, Sudan. Its main tributaries—the White Nile and the Blue Nile—meet in.
The Nile is associated with many gods and goddesses, all of whom the Egyptians believed were deeply intertwined with the blessings and curses of the land, weather, culture and abundance of the people. They believed the gods were intimately involved with the people and could help them in all facets of their lives.
In some myths, the Nile was considered a manifestation of the god Hapi who blessed the land with abundance, according to the Ancient History Encyclopedia. Isis, the goddess of the Nile and the "Giver of Life," was believed to have taught the people how to farm and work the land.
The water god Khnum, who ruled over all forms of water, even the lakes and rivers in the underworld, was believed to be in charge of the amount of silt that flooded the river banks every year.
White Nile - Wikipedia
In later dynasties, Khnum branched out to become the god of rebirth and creation as well. Flooding Each year, heavy summer rains upstream and melting snow in the Ethiopian Mountains would fill the Blue Nile well over its capacity and send a torrent of water downstream.
The extra water would then spill over the banks onto the dry desert land of Egypt. Once the floods subsided, thick black silt, or mud, would be left behind on the ground. The silt created rich, fertile soil for planting crops — vital in this land of so little rain.
Approximately 96 percent of the sediment carried by the Nile River originates in Ethiopia, according to the New World Encyclopedia. The silt area was known as the Black Land, while the desert lands further out were known as the Red Land. Each year, the Ancient Egyptian people eagerly awaited and thanked the gods for the life-giving floods.
If the floods were too small, there would be difficult times ahead with little food. If the floods were too large, it could cause flooding harm in the surrounding villages. The Egyptian calendar was divided into three stages based on the yearly flood cycle: Akhet, the first season of the year, which covered the flooding period between June and September; Peret, the growing and sowing time from October to mid-February; and Shemu, the time of harvesting between mid-February and the end of May.
Although the floods were desperately needed in older times, they are less necessary and even a nuisance to modern civilization with its irrigation systems. Even though the floods no longer occur along the Nile, the memory of this fertile blessing is still celebrated in Egypt today, mainly as an entertainment for tourists. The annual celebration, known as Wafaa El-Nil, begins on August 15th and lasts for two weeks.
Sharing the Nile Because 11 countries must share one precious resource, there are bound to be disputes. It offers a forum for discussion and coordination among the countries to help manage and share the river's resources. Joseph Awange is an associate professor in the department of spatial sciences at Curtin University in Australia.
Using satellites, he has been monitoring the volume of water in the Nile River and reporting the findings to the Basin countries so they can effectively plan for sustainable use of the river's resources. Of course, getting all the countries to agree on what they believe is fair and equal use of the Nile's resources is no easy task. It is located just over miles northwest of Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa.
Mogran, Khartoum: Address, Mogran Reviews: 4/5
When complete, the GERD will be the largest hydroelectric dam in Africa and one of the largest in the world. Once it joins the White Nile, they form the Nile. The erosion and transportation of silt only occurs during the Ethiopian rainy season in the summer, however, when rainfall is especially high on the Ethiopian plateau. Since Roman times, the cataracts kept boats from going up and down the river between Equatorial Africa and Egypt and with the massive wetlands on the upper Nile south of Khartoum have shrouded the sources of the Nile in mystery for millennia.
Though six are numbered, there are actually many more. The cataracts are also significant because these define river segments where granite and other hard rocks come down to the edge of the Nile.
The floodplain is narrow to nonexistent, so opportunities for agriculture are limited. For these two reasons—navigation obstacles and restricted floodplain—this part of the Nile is thinly populated.
The Great Bend is one of the most unexpected features of the Nile. For most of its course, the Nile flows inexorably north, but in the heart of the Sahara Desertit turns southwest and flows away from the sea for kilometers before resuming its northward journey. This deflection of the river's course is due to tectonic uplift of the Nubian Swell.
This uplift is also responsible for the cataracts; if not for recent uplift, these rocky stretches would have been quickly reduced by the abrasive action of the sediment-laden Nile.
Nile River - New World Encyclopedia
Hydrology It puzzled the ancients why the amount of water flowing down the Nile in Egypt varied so much over the course of a year, particularly because almost no rain fell there. Today we have hydrographic information that explains why the Nile is a "summer river. The White Nile maintains a constant flow over the year, because its flow is doubly buffered.
Seasonal variations are moderated by the water stored in the Central African lakes of Victoria and Albert and by evaporation losses in the Sudd, the world's largest freshwater swamp.
- The Nile: Longest River in the World
- Tuti Island where the Blue Nile and... - Tuti Island
- Nile River
The Sudd reduces annual variations in streamflow since in unusually wet years, the area of the Sudd increases, which leads to larger losses to evaporation than during dry years, when the area of the Sudd is reduced. In the winter, when little rain falls in the highlands, these rivers dry up.
In the summer, moist winds from the Indian Ocean cool as they climb up the Ethiopian highlands, bringing torrential rains that fill the dry washes and canyons with rushing water that ultimately joins the Blue Nile or the Atbara.
During the summer, the White Nile's contribution is insignificant. The annual flood in Egypt is a gift of the annual monsoon in Ethiopia. After Aswan, there is less water due to evaporation of the Nile's waters during its leisurely passage through the Sahara Desert. Water is also lost due to human usage, so that progressively less water flows in the Nile from Atbara, the Nile's last tributary, all the way to the Mediterranean Sea.
Before the placement of dams on the river, peak flows would occur during late August and early September and minimum flows would occur during late April and early May. Climate change, or perhaps overgrazing, desiccated the pastoral lands of Egypt to form the Sahara Desertpossibly as long ago as B.
As an unending source of sustenance, the Nile played a crucial role in the founding of Egyptian civilization. Bordering lands were extremely fertile due to periodic flooding and annual inundation. The Egyptians were able to cultivate wheat and other crops, providing food for the population and for trade.
These animals could be killed for meat or tamed and used for plowing—or in the camels' case, overland travel across the Sahara. The Nile itself was also a convenient and efficient means of transportation for people and goods.
Flax and wheat could be traded. Trade, in turn, secured the diplomatic relationships Egypt had with other countries, and often contributed to its economic stability. The Nile also provided the resources, such as food or money, to quickly and efficiently raise an army. The Nile played a major role in politics, religion, and social life. The pharaoh would supposedly flood the Nile, and in return for the life-giving water and crops, the peasants would cultivate the fertile soil and send a portion of the resources they had reaped to the pharaoh.
Also, the Nile was considered a causeway from life to death and afterlife. The east was thought of as a place of birth and growth, and the west was considered the place of death, as the god Rathe sununderwent birth, death, and resurrection each time he crossed the sky.
Thus, all tombs were located west of the Nile, because the Egyptians believed that to enter the afterlife, they must be buried on the side that symbolized death.Blue Nile Waterfall, Behar Dar, Ethiopia Part 8 (Travel Documentary in Urdu Hindi)
The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that "Egypt was the gift of the Nile," and in a sense that is correct. Without the waters of the Nile River for irrigationEgyptian civilization would probably have been short-lived.
The Nile provided the elements that make a vigorous civilization, and contributed much to its endurance for three thousand years. The search for the source The Great Bend of the Nile in Sudan, looking north across the Sahara Desert toward northern Sudan Despite the attempts of the Greeks and Romans who were unable to penetrate the Suddthe upper reaches of the Nile remained largely unknown. Various expeditions failed to determine the river's source, thus yielding classical Hellenistic and Roman representations of the river as a male god with his face and head obscured in drapery.
Agatharcides records that in the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a military expedition penetrated far enough along the course of the Blue Nile to determine that the summer floods were caused by heavy seasonal rainstorms in the Ethiopian highlands, but no European in antiquity is known to have reached Lake Tana, let alone retraced the steps of this expedition farther than Meroe.
Europeans learned little new information about the origins of the Nile until the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, when travelers to Ethiopia visited not only Lake Tana but the source of the Blue Nile in the mountains south of the lake. The deadly, tumultuous waters that passed through a narrow gorge near the headwaters deterred exploration until recent years. The White Nile was even less understood, and the ancients mistakenly believed that the Niger River represented the upper reaches of the White Nile; for example, Pliny the Elder wrote that the Nile had its origins "in a mountain of lower Mauretania ," flowed above ground for "many days" distance, then went underground, reappeared as a large lake in the territories of the Masaesyles, then sank again below the desert to flow underground "for a distance of 20 days' journey till it reaches the nearest Ethiopians" Natural History 5.
Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after Victoriathe queen of the United Kingdom.
Burton, who had been recovering from illness at the time and resting farther south on the shores of Lake Tanganyikawas outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to have been the true source of the Nile when Burton regarded this as still unsettled. A very public quarrel ensued, which not only sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community of the day but much interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery.
The well-known British explorer and missionary David Livingstone failed in his attempt to verify Speke's discovery, instead pushing too far west and entering the Congo River system instead.
It was ultimately the American explorer Henry Morton Stanley who confirmed Speke's discovery, circumnavigating Lake Victoria and reporting the great outflow at Ripon Falls on the lake's northern shore.