Triveni Sangam | Allahabad - Trail by Prashant Dubey (@prashantdubey07) | Trell
After the Yamuna river, a tributary to the Ganges, was granted the accolade, just inside the Delhi borders, where the river meets a barrage and court suspended the decision to grant the Yamuna and Ganges living status. Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our + Global Conferenceseries Ganga River; Water quality; Pollution; Environmental condition; Tolerant fish species . Gupta  observed pH values between in Yamuna river water at Agra. Its browsing nature increased suspended solids in the Ganga River . Millions of Hindus plunge into Ganges River in India to wash away Regardless of the pollution, Hindus believe bathing in the Ganges will.
Analysis of Physico-chemical properties from Ganga River water at Varanasi. The average TDS was noted At Varanasi site, the average TDS was observed A high content of dissolved solid element affect the density of water influence osmoregulation of fresh water in organism, reduce solubility of gases and utility, of water for drinking.
The TDS is not limiting factor for C. After invasion of C. Its browsing nature increased suspended solids in the Ganga River [ 16 ]. Katiyar [ 38 ] reports TDS mean values Electrical Conductivity EC Chemically pure water does not conduct electricity. Any rise in the electrical conductivity of water indicates pollution.
At Allahabad site, the average EC was recorded At Varanasi site, the average EC was recorded High EC values are indicating the presence of higher amount of dissolved inorganic substances in ionized form. The slightly lower concentration of sulphate was recorded at Allahabad site compared to Kanpur site. Chavan [ 40 ] observed minimum sulphate 5. Discharge of industrial wastes and domestic sewage in water ends to increase its concentration.
Sulphate present in fertilisers they contributes to water pollution and increase sulphate concentration in water bodies. They also come from the runoff water which contain relatively large quantitative of organic and minerals sulphate compound. In most natural water excess amount of phosphorus can cause eutrophication leading to excessive algal growth called algal blooms.
At Kanpur site, the average PO4 recorded was 1. The maximum PO4 was noted 1. At Allahabad site, the minimum PO4 was recorded 0. The average PO4 was recorded 0. At Varanasi site, the average PO4 was recorded 1. The minimum PO4 was recorded 1.
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Singh [ 27 ] reported that the PO4 was ranged from 1. Alkalinity At Kanpur site, the average alkalinity recorded was At Allahabad site, the average alkalinity was recorded At Varanasi site, the average alkalinity was recorded Praveen [ 23 ] reported that alkalinity value was ranged from The alkalinity of the river water was more in winter when the temperature was lower compared to monsoon and summer seasons.
The average Cl was recorded At Allahabad site, the average TH was recorded At Varanasi site, the average TH was recorded Water hardness refers to the concentration of divalent calcium, Magnesium, Strontium, Ferrous, and Manganese ions.
It is derived largely from soil and rock erosion. The minimum Nitrate was recorded in monsoon season 0. At Allahabad site, the minimum Nitrate was recorded 0. At Allahabad site, the average Nitrate was recorded 1. At Varanasi site, the average Nitrate was recorded 2. The minimum Nitrate was recorded 2.
The maximum Nitrate was noted in summer season as 2. Tripathi [ 31 ] reported mean value of NO3 was 1. In surface waters nitrogen may exist as particulates or dissolved forms.
Organic nitrogen decays to produce ammonia via anaerobic bacteria decayed process. Between the Yamuna River at Delhi and the Bay of Bengal, a distance of nearly 1, miles 1, kmthe elevation drops only some feet metres. Altogether the Ganges-Brahmaputra plains extend over an area ofsquare milessquare km.
The alluvial mantle of the plain, which in some places is more than 6, feet 1, metres thick, is possibly not more than 10, years old. Plant and animal life The Ganges-Yamuna area was once densely forested. Historical writings indicate that in the 16th and 17th centuries wild elephants, buffalo, bison, rhinoceroses, lions, and tigers were hunted there.
Most of the original natural vegetation has disappeared from the Ganges basin, and the land is now intensely cultivated to meet the needs of an ever-growing population.
Large wild animals are few, except for deer, boars, and wildcats and some wolves, jackals, and foxes. Only in the Sundarbans area of the delta are some Bengal tigers, crocodiles, and marsh deer still found.
Ganges river dolphin, or susu Platanista gangetica. In the Bengal area common fish include featherbacks Notopteridae familybarbs Cyprinidaewalking catfishgouramis Anabantidaeand milkfish Chanidae. The Ganges river dolphin —or susu Platanista gangeticaa nearly sightless cetacean with highly developed sonar capabilities—can be found throughout the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin, but it is considered endangered because of encroaching human activity.
Many varieties of birds are found, such as mynah birds, parrots, crows, kites, partridges, and fowls. In winter, ducks and snipes migrate south across the high Himalayas, settling in large numbers in water-covered areas. People Ethnically, the people of the Ganges basin are of mixed origin. In the west and centre of the basin they were originally descended from an early population—possibly speaking Dravidian or Austroasiatic languages—and were later joined by speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
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In historical times Turks, Mongols, Afghans, Persians, and Arabs came from the west and intermingled with them. To the east and south, especially in Bengal, peoples speaking Austroasiatic, Indo-Aryan, and Tibeto-Burman languages have joined the population over the centuries. Europeans, arriving still later, did not settle or intermarry to any large extent. Kannauj on the Ganges, in central Uttar Pradesh north of Kanpurwas the capital of the feudal empire of Harshawhich covered most of northern India in the mid-7th century.
During the Muslim era, which began in the 12th century, Muslim rule extended not only over the plain but over all Bengal as well. Dhaka and Murshidabad in the delta region were centres of Muslim power. The British, having founded Calcutta Kolkata on the banks of the Hugli River in the late 17th century, gradually expanded their dominion up the valley of the Ganges, reaching Delhi in the midth century.
A large number of cities have been built on the Gangetic Plain. The religious importance of the Ganges may exceed that of any other river in the world. It has been revered from the earliest times and today is regarded as the holiest of rivers by Hindus. While places of Hindu pilgrimage, called tirtha s, are located throughout the subcontinent, those that are situated on the Ganges have particular significance.
Among those are the confluence of the Ganges and the Yamuna near Allahabad, where a bathing festival, or mela, is held in January and February; during the ceremony hundreds of thousands of pilgrims immerse themselves in the river. Other holy places for immersion are at Varanasi and at Haridwar. The Hugli River at Kolkata also is regarded as holy. Other places of pilgrimage on the Ganges include Gangotri and the junction of the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi headstreams in the Himalayas. The Hindus cast the ashes of their dead into the river, believing that this gives the deceased direct passage to heavenand cremation ghats temples at the summit of riverside steps for burning the dead have been built in many places on the banks of the Ganges.
Ship laden with cremation ashes to be deposited in the Ganges River, Varanasi, India.Triveni Sangam at Allahabad: where Ganga, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati meet: aerial view
Such irrigation is described in scriptures and mythological books written more than 2, years ago. Megasthenesa Greek historian and ambassador who was in India, recorded the use of irrigation in the 4th century bce. Irrigation was highly developed during the period of Muslim rule from the 12th century onward, and the Mughal kings later constructed several canals. The canal system was further extended by the British. The cultivated area of the Ganges valley in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar benefits from a system of irrigation canals that has increased the production of such cash crops as sugarcanecotton, and oilseeds.
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The Upper Ganga Canal, which begins at Hardiwar, and its branches have a combined length of 5, miles 9, km.
The Lower Ganga Canal, extending 5, miles 8, km with its branches, begins at Naraura.
Higher lands at the northern edge of the plain are difficult to irrigate by canal, and groundwater must be pumped to the surface. Large areas in Uttar Pradesh and in Bihar are also irrigated by channels running from hand-dug wells. The Ganges-Kabadak scheme in Bangladesh, largely an irrigation plan, covers parts of the districts of Khulna, Jessore, and Kushtia that lie within the part of the delta where silt and overgrowth choke the slowly flowing rivers.
The system of irrigation is based on both gravity canals and electrically powered lifting devices. Navigation In ancient times the Ganges and some of its tributaries, especially in the east, were important transportation routes. According to Megasthenes, the Ganges and its main tributaries were being navigated in the 4th century bce. In the 14th century, inland-river navigation in the Ganges basin was still flourishing. By the 19th century, irrigation-cum-navigation canals formed the main arteries of the water-transport system.
The advent of paddle steamers revolutionized inland transport, stimulating the growth of indigo production in Bihar and Bengal. Regular steamer services ran from Kolkata up the Ganges to Allahabad and far beyond, as well as to Agra on the Yamuna and up the Brahmaputra River.
The increasing withdrawal of water for irrigation also affected navigation. River traffic now is insignificant beyond the middle Ganges basin around Allahabad, mainly consisting of rural rivercraft including motorboats, sailboats, and rafts. West Bengal and Bangladesh, however, continue to rely on the waterways to transport jute, tea, grain, and other agricultural and rural products.
The partition of British India into India and Pakistan in —with eastern Bengal becoming East Pakistan until in it declared its independence as Bangladesh—produced far-reaching changes, virtually halting the large trade in tea and jute formerly carried to Kolkata from Assam by inland waterway.
In India the Inland Waterways Authority of India formulates policy for and develops and maintains an extensive system of national waterways, while the publicly owned Central Inland Water Transport Corporation, Ltd. Approximately 1, miles 1, km of waterways in the Ganges basin from Allahabad to Haldia are included in the system.